, 1982) are genetically depauperate species. Bottleneck-related evolutionary factors may explain such discrepancies (e.g., Fady and Conord, 2010). Although far from widespread (e.g., Feeley and Silman, 2011), data for a number of tree species enabling such genecological analyses are currently made available by the scientific community (such as EUFORGEN, 2013, MAPFORGEN, 2013 and VECEA, 2013, cf. Bohn et al., 2000, Bohn et al., 2007, Lillesø et al., 2005, Kindt et al., 2005, Kindt et al., 2007a, Kindt et al., 2007b, Kindt et al., 2011a, Kindt et al., 2011b, Kindt et al., 2011c, Kindt et al., 2011d,
Mucina and Rutherford, 2006, Friis et al., 2010, Lillesø et al., 2011a, van Breugel et al., 2011a and van Breugel et al., 2011b). Further work in this Epigenetic screening direction is laborious and complex, but significant progress can be made if for example it is dealt
with by a network of national and international institutions that will jointly be responsible for assessment and evaluation. Assessing indicators at the population level will likely be more resource demanding than the other levels, requiring commitment of significant resources at national selleck compound and regional levels. Current work aimed at the development of genetic monitoring methods for genetic conservation units of European forest trees promises to be a valuable model (Aravanopoulos et al., 2014). The local level is addressed by the operational indicator trends in population condition and two verifiable indicators pertaining to demographic and genetic verifiers ( Table 5) are suggested. In this case, both demographic and genetic parameters, 11 in total, are needed for evaluating population condition. Population demography, as well as fitness, can be assessed by simple field estimations
mafosfamide and basic experiments in a straightforward manner. Therefore, besides demographic conditions, two important parameters at the local population level, selection and genetic diversity (the latter at an indirect level), can be assessed ( Aravanopoulos, 2011 and Konnert et al., 2011). The direct estimation of population genetic parameters, including genetic drift and erosion, and gene flow and population structure, can be undertaken with molecular genetic markers, but this involves significant costs and particular expertise. Although the costs of molecular genotyping are decreasingly rapidly compared to the costs of phenotyping, the latter remains the main or only option in many countries. With sound experimental design and proper care of field studies, phenotypic data from field trials can yield valuable information about genetic diversity and population structure with respect to adaptive traits, but as such studies are generally more expensive now than molecular analyses, it is not feasible to monitor change over time based on such studies only.