Recently, PRA and DPRA have been developed for molecular identification of mycobacterial species using different regions of hsp65, 16 S rDNA, 16 S-23 S rDNA spacer, dnaJ, and rpoB as an amplification target [3, 14–17]. The most common method is hsp65 PRA, and 74 patterns for 40 species are available in the PRASITE database ( http://app.chuv.ch/prasite/index.html). ARRY-438162 mouse Previous studies [18, 19] have reported that hsp65 PRA is faster and more accurate for species identification than conventional (phenotypic or biochemical) testing. This is because
more incorrect and ambiguous results are obtained with conventional methods. The results in our study (4EGI-1 in vitro Tables 1 and 2) also support this finding. Incorrect and ambiguous results are caused by phenotypic homogeneity among different species and phenotypic variability within species . With by hsp65 PRA, some sub-species, such as M. kansasii, can be identified and rapid-growing
Selleckchem SRT2104 mycobacterium can be divided into M. abscessus and M.chelonae, M. fortuitum and M. smegmatis, whereas these identifications are difficult with conventional methods . As found in our study (Tables 1 and 2), M. peregrinum was identified as M. fortuitum and M. avium subsp. avium and M. intracellulare were both identified as M. avium complex by the conventional biochemical method. However, hsp65 PRA limitations have been reported in some articles [22, 23]. Failure to identify or incorrect identification of the species may occur because of similarities in band sizes critical for discriminating species, including difficult to distinguish M. tuberculosis complex (M. tuberculosis and M. bovis) , and closely related sub-species such as M. avium or M. gordonae, because of sequence heterogeneity . In addition, technical problems can also cause misinterpretation or incorrect identification . Patterns in PRA profiles are complex and difficult Methane monooxygenase to interpret with the naked eye, especially when more detailed sub-types are included . This study combined rpoB DPRA and hsp65 PRA to test both reference strains and clinical respiratory
isolates. The mycobacterial identification flow chart (Figure 1) can identify species to the sub-species level, and final species identification can be obtained instantly with concordant results from the two PRA. M. gordonae has a highly variable gene sequence with 10 sub-types in hsp65 PRA, and there are two groups (G and F) in rpoB DPRA. Most M. gordonae is in the G group, but M. gordonae types 3 and 4 by hsp65 PRA are in the F group (Tables 1 and 2). In addition, there were different rpoB DPRA results (Table 2) for M. simaie type 5 (G group but not E group), M. scrofulaceum type 1 (D group but not H group), and M. intracellulare type 3 (F group but not G group). The identities of all of these isolates were finally confirmed by 16 S rDNA sequencing.