To investigate the role of Lcl in adhesion and invasion, the experiment was repeated with Sirolimus supplier bacteria (5 × 107 bacteria mL−1) preincubated
with Lcl-specific antibodies (20 μg mL−1 bacteria culture) at 37 °C for 1 h before they were placed in contact with the eukaryotic cells. As a control, experiments were repeated with a xylanase C (XlnC) antibody. XlnC is a Streptomyces lividans secreted protein (Faury et al., 2004) and the XlnC antibodies were of the same isotype and produced under the same conditions as the Lcl-specific antibodies. Alternatively, for measuring adhesion to host cells, experiments were performed with immobilized purified, refolded Lcl protein. Lcl and BSA (negative control) were immobilized as films on flat-bottomed microtiter 96-well plates (Nunclon) at a concentration of 5 μg per well overnight at 4 °C. Films were blocked with 1% BSA, washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), followed by addition of 100 μL of eukaryotic cell suspension (5 × 105 cells mL−1) to each well and incubation at room temperature for 1 h. Nonadherent cells were removed by two washes with PBS, and those that adhered to the films were stained with crystal violet. Plates were read at A595 nm. Additionally, the immobilized films were preincubated with Lcl-specific antibodies
(20, 2, Fluorouracil manufacturer 0.2 μg per well) for 30 min on ice before adding the eukaryotic cells. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments were carried out using a host cell lysate in combination with refolded Lcl protein. First, pelleted A549 cells or macrophage-like cells were resuspended in solubilization buffer (150 mM NaCl, 50 mM Tris, pH 8.0, 0.2% Triton X-100) and sonicated. Samples (500 μL) of the lysate (0.5 μg μL−1) were incubated with refolded Lcl protein (10 μg in total) for 1 h at 4 °C, rotating end over end. Sepharose A powder (10 mg) was added to the 500 μL mixture and further rotated for 1 h at 4 °C, followed by centrifugation (5 min, Astemizole 1000 g). The supernatant was subsequently incubated with Lcl-specific antibodies or complement component C1q receptor
(C1qR)-specific antibodies rotating for 1 h at 4 °C. This incubation step was followed by addition of 10 mg sepharose A powder again. After 1 h at 4 °C, the immunoprecipitates were isolated by centrifugation (5 min, 1000 g) and washed four times with 150 μL solubilization buffer. After resuspension in 2 × SDS loading dye, the samples were boiled and the immunoprecipitated proteins were visualized by immunodetection with Lcl-specific antibodies. As a control, samples containing only lysate and Lcl protein without antibodies and samples only containing antibodies were also incubated with the protein A sepharose powder. Statistical analyses were performed using the standard Student t-test with equal variances.