In multivariate analysis, molecular parameters associated with a shorter TFS were: WT1 detection (p = 0.014), low TET2 (p = 0.002), and low IER3 expression (p = 0.025). WT1 detection (p = 0.006) and low TET2 (p = 0.006) expression were associated with a shorter PFS when multivariate analysis was carried out by including only molecular markers. Molecular values with an independent value in OS were: WT1 detection (p = 0.003), high EVI1 expression (p = 0.001),
and undetectatable p15-CDKN2B (p = 0.037). WT1 expressers were associated with adverse clinical-biological features, high IPSS and WPSS scoring, and unfavorable molecular expression profile. In summary, detectable WT1 expression levels, and low TET2 and low IER3 expression in peripheral LY411575 cell line blood showed a strong association with adverse prognosis in MDS patients at diagnosis. However, WT1 was the only molecular marker displaying an independent prognostic value in both OS and TFS.”
“Bacterial Tat systems export folded proteins, including FeS proteins such as NrfC and NapG,
which acquire their cofactors before selleck kinase inhibitor translocation. NrfC and NapG are proofread by the Tat pathway, and misfolded examples are degraded after interaction with the translocon. Here, we identify TatD as a crucial component of this quality control system in Escherichia SB203580 mw coli. NrfC/NapG variants lacking FeS centres are rapidly degraded in wild-type cells but stable in a DtatD strain. The precursor of another substrate, FhuD, is also transiently detected in wild-type cells but stable in the DtatD strain. Surprisingly, these substrates are stable
in DtatD cells that overexpress TatD, and export of the non-mutated precursors is inhibited. We propose that TatD is part of a quality control system that is intimately linked to the Tat export pathway, and that the overexpression of TatD leads to an imbalance between the two systems such that both Tat-initiated turnover and export are prevented.”
“Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) can be abundantly present in numerous cancer types. Under influence of various stimuli in the tumor microenvironment TAMs develop into a tumor-inhibitory (M1) or tumor-promoting (M2) phenotype. Recently, the role of TAMs in tumor biology and their prognostic value in cancer has become a major topic of interest. In this review we will discuss the importance of TAMs in the pathogenesis and clinical outcome of lung cancer and mesothelioma patients. In addition, the potential of TAMs as therapeutic targets will be discussed. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
While DMRT1 plays an important role during testis development and maintenance in many vertebrate species, this is the first report showing a requirement for DMRT1 in Mullerian duct development. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“A balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission is important in normal brain function, and in schizophrenia a deficit in gamma-aminobutyric Z-VAD-FMK nmr acid (GABA)ergic inhibitory neurotransmission has been indicated by postmortem studies. We examined the ratio of excitatory to inhibitory vesicular neurotransmitter transporter mRNAs (VGluT1 to VGAT) and their
ratio in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during normal human development and in people with schizophrenia and controls by quantitative RT-PCR. The
ratio of VGluT1/VGAT increased gradually in development to reach a peak at school age (5-12 years), after which levels remained fairly constant into adulthood. The VGluT1 mRNA/VGAT mRNA ratio was unchanged in schizophrenia, as was the ratio of complexin 2 mRNA to complexin 1 mRNA (related to synaptic vesicle fusion in excitatory and inhibitory terminals, CFTRinh-172 solubility dmso respectively). This suggests that the excitatory/inhibitory balance is attained prior to adolescence and is maintained across the rest of the life-span and also indicates that in schizophrenia this balance is not greatly disturbed. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“This review presents the current state of Bioluminescence and Fluorescent Imaging technologies (BLI and FLI) as applied to Biomaterial-Associated Infections (BAI). BLI offers the opportunity to observe the in vivo course of BAI in small animals without the need to sacrifice animals at different time points after IPI-145 in vitro the onset of infection. BLI is highly dependent on the bacterial cell metabolism which makes BLI a strong reporter of viable bacterial presence. Fluorescent sources are generally more stable than bioluminescent ones and specifically targeted, which renders the combination
of BLI and FLI a promising tool for imaging BAI. The sensitivity and spatial resolution of both imaging tools are, however, dependent on the imaging system used and the tissue characteristics, which makes the interpretation of images, in terms of the location and shape of the illuminating source, difficult. Tomographic reconstruction of the luminescent source is possible in the most modern instruments, enabling exact localization of a colonized implant material, spreading of infecting organisms in surrounding tissue and immunological tissue reactions. BLI studies on BAI have successfully distinguished between different biomaterials with respect to the development and clearance of BAI in vivo, simultaneously reducing animal use and experimental variation. It is anticipated that bio-optical imaging will become an indispensable technology for the in vivo evaluation of antimicrobial coatings. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Each rat was injected www.selleckchem.com/products/BafilomycinA1.html intraperitoneally with 1.85 MBq radioactivity of Zn-65 following 3 months of different treatments, and the radioactivity was determined using a suitably shielded scintillation counter. Arsenic treatment showed a significant increase in the fast component (Tb-1) of the biological half-life of Zn-65 in liver, which remained unaltered in the whole body. Furthermore, arsenic treatment decreased significantly the slow component (Tb-2) in the whole body, which remained unchanged in the liver. However, zinc supplementation to arsenic-treated rats normalized Tb-1 in the liver, but caused no change in Tb-2 in the whole body. Furthermore, the uptake values of Zn-65 were significantly
increased in the liver,
brain, kidney, and intestine following arsenic treatment, and the values in the liver and brain were decreased by zinc. Hence, zinc plays a significant role in regulating the biokinetics of Zn-65 in the liver and the whole body of arsenic-intoxicated rats.”
“Current state of the art bridging ELISA technologies for detection of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) against therapeutic antibodies bear the risk of false-negative results due to interference by circulating drug. Methods to remove the drug in the sample or sample pre-treatment techniques such as acid dissociation of the immune complexes are limited, laborious and may destroy ADAs resulting again this website Batimastat in false-negative results. The immune complex ELISA described in this publication provides a simple solution. It is designed to analyze samples from cynomolgus monkeys dosed with human antibodies; it can be used for all human antibodies since it is
independent of the specific antibody and its target. The generic applicability of the ADA assay is enabled by the use of (1) a murine anti-human Fc monoclonal antibody (MAb) as capture reagent; (2) a murine anti-cynomolgus monkey IgG MAb as detection reagent; and (3) an ADA positive control conjugate consisting of cynomolgus IgG complexed with human IgG. In its basic version, the generic ADA ELISA specifically detects only immune complexes formed in vivo. Validation of the ADA assay revealed a lower limit of quantitation of 15.6 ng/mL in serum samples. Intra-assay and interassay precision was characterized by a coefficient of variation of less than 10% and accuracy was within 8%. Matrix effects were low as evidenced by a mean recovery of 95%. In vitro pre-incubation of the serum samples with drug makes also the free ADA in the sample amenable to measurement by the immune complex ELISA as demonstrated by analysis of ADAs from two cynomolgus monkey studies with two different antibodies. The generic and versatile nature of this ADA assay favors its use in pilot pharmacokinetic and safety studies in cynomolgus monkeys during candidate selection of antibodies.
This study compared the efficacy of cognitive
behavioral therapy (CBT) to supportive nondirective therapy (SNDT) in treating youth with comorbid IBD and depression. Method: Youth (51% female and 49% male; age 9-17 years, mean age 14.3 years) with depression and Crohn’s disease (n = 161) or ulcerative colitis (n = 56) were randomly assigned to a 3-month course of CBT or SNDT. The primary outcome was comparative reduction in depressive symptom severity; secondary outcomes were depression remission, increase in depression response, and improved health-related adjustment and IBD activity. Results: A total of 178 participants (82%) completed the 3-month intervention. Both psychotherapies resulted in significant reductions in total Children’s Depression Rating Scale Revised score (37.3% for CBT and 31.9% for SNDT), Temsirolimus but the difference between the 2 treatments was not significant P5091 inhibitor (p = .16). There were large pre-post effect sizes for each treatment (d = 1.31 for CBT and d =- 1.30 for SNDT). More than 65% of youth had a complete remission of depression at 3 months, with no difference between CBT and SNDT (67.8% and 63.2%, respectively). Compared to SNDT, CBT was associated with a greater reduction in IBD activity (p = .04) but no greater improvement on the Clinical Global Assessment Scale (p = .06) and health-related quality of
life (IMPACT-III scale) (p = .07). Conclusion: This is the first randomized controlled study to suggest improvements in depression severity, global functioning, quality of life, and disease activity in a physically ill pediatric cohort treated with psychotherapy. Clinical trial registration information Reducing Depressive
Symptoms in Physically III Youth; http://clinical trials.gov; NCT00534911.”
“Continuing our earlier study in a group of purine-2,6-dione derivatives of long chain arylpiperazines (LCAPs), a series Sapanisertib in vitro of 8-unsubstituted 7-phenylpiperazin-4-yl-alkyl (4-14) and 7-tetrahydroisoquinolinyl-alkyl (15-17) analogues were synthesized and their serotonin 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT6, 5-HT7 and dopamine D-2 receptor affinities were determined. The study allowed us to identify some potent 5-HT1A receptor ligands with additional moderate affinity for 5-HT2A, 5-HT7 and dopamine D-2 receptors. Compounds 9, 12, 13 and 14, with the highest 5HT(1A) receptor affinity, were selected for further functional in vivo studies and behavioural evaluation of antidepressant-and antianxiety-like activity. Compounds 9, 12 and 13 showed features of agonists of pre- and/or post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptors, whereas 14 was classified as an antagonist of postsynaptic sites. Moreover, derivatives 9 and 14 acted as antagonists of 5-HT2A receptors. In behavioural studies, compounds 9 and 13 showed antidepressant-like activity in the mouse forced swim test, and their effects were similar or stronger than those of imipramine.
The least compound QH7 shows a greater activity against the resistant cell lines than the parental cell line; it is most damaging to pBR322 plasmid DNA and most able to induce changes in DNA conformation. The variations in activity of the compounds, changes in intracellular drug accumulation and levels of Pt-DNA binding with the changes in number of planaramine ligands bound to central platinum and the length of the linking diamines, can be seen (1) to illustrate structure-activity relationships and (2) to highlight that the relationship between antitumour activity and interaction with cellular see more platinophiles including DNA can be
quite complex as the cell death is carried out by downstream processes in the cell cycle where many proteins are involved. Conclusion: Among the three designed trinuclear platinum complexes with cis-geometry for the terminal metal centres, the most active compound QH8 is found to be more active than cisplatin against the parental A2780 and the resistant A2780(cisR) and A2780(ZD0473R) cell lines.”
“Shigella flexneri is a facultative Selleckchem PD-L1 inhibitor intracellular pathogen that relies on a type III secretion system and its associated effector proteins to cause bacillary dysentery in humans. The genes that encode this virulence system are located on a 230-kbp plasmid and are transcribed in response to thermal,
https://www.selleckchem.com/products/U0126.html osmotic, and pH signals that are characteristic of the human lower gut. The virulence genes are
organized within a regulatory cascade, and the nucleoid-associated protein H-NS represses each of the key promoters. Transcription derepression depends first on the VirF AraC-like transcription factor, a protein that antagonizes H-NS-mediated repression at the intermediate regulatory gene virB. The VirB protein in turn remodels the H-NS-DNA nucleoprotein complexes at the promoters of the genes encoding the type III secretion system and effector proteins, causing these genes to become derepressed. In this study, we show that the VirB protein also positively regulates the expression of its own gene (virB) via a cis-acting regulatory sequence. In addition, VirB positively regulates the gene coding for the VirF protein. This study reveals two hitherto uncharacterized feedback regulatory loops in the S. flexneri virulence cascade that provide a mechanism for the enhanced expression of the principal virulence regulatory genes.”
“Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is among the most common secondary cancers after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Several types of human papillomavirus (HPV) are causally linked with SCC of the genital tract and head and neck, and the incidence of these cancers is higher among immunosuppressed patients compared to immunocompetent patients.
\n\nHypothesis:\n\nOne or more novel papillomaviruses cause equine genital SCC and its associated premalignant lesions.\n\nMethods:\n\nDNA was extracted from samples of equine genital SCC and performed rolling circle amplification, in order to identify
closed circular DNA viral genomes within the samples. The amplified DNA was subcloned and sequenced and the DNA sequence compared to that of other papillomavirus genomes. Using PCR primers developed from these genomic DNA sequences, studies were then carried out in order to identify the selleck chemicals frequency at which the viral DNA could be identified in equine genital cancer samples from horses in both the UK, Australia and Austria. Finally, in situ hybridisation using specific BKM120 probes developed from this DNA sequence were used to confirm the presence of the viral RNA sequences in the neoplastic cells in these lesions.\n\nResults:\n\nThe full length genome of a novel papillomavirus species was characterised from the equine genital SCC tissue and termed Equus caballus papillomavirus-2 (EcPV-2). Viral DNA and RNA was identified in the genital tumour samples, but not in the adjacent histologically normal tissue. EcPV-2 DNA could not be identified in equine ocular or nasal carcinomas or within the scrotal skin or in most smegma samples obtained from tumour-free horses. Sequencing of amplicons,
generated from the archived equine genital tumours, identified variations within E1 and E6 on DNA and predicted protein level.\n\nConclusions:\n\nA novel papillomavirus, EcPV-2, is likely to play a causal role in the pathogenesis of equine genital epithelial tumours.\n\nPotential relevance:\n\nIdentification of a papillomavirus causal for genital carcinomas in horses may lead to development of a vaccine that could be used to prevent this serious disease in horses. This would be analogous to man, where vaccination against oncogenic papillomavirus species is currently being used to help prevent cervical cancer.”
“Background. Selleckchem Copanlisib Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is responsible for about
900 deaths every year in Burkina Faso. In this country, serological screening for hepatitis B and C viruses is only carried out systematically among blood donors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and genotypes of HCV among blood donors using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR, respectively. Materials and methods. Serum samples were screened for antibodies to HCV using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ARCHITECT-i1000SR-ABBOTT). All the reactive samples for HCV antibodies were re-tested using a second enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Bio-Rad, Marries la Coquette, France) for confirmation. RNA was detected in all the reactive samples for antibodies to HCV. HCV RNA positive samples were genotyped using the HCV Real-TM Genotype kit (Sacace Biotechnologies, Italy). Results.
“The water-soluble chitosan derivative grafted with short amylose chains (Chit-Amy-Ill) was synthesized through the phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic polymerization, following that the chitosan was grafted with maltoheptaose residues by reductive
amination. The chemical structures were characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR, Raman, XRD and static light scattering analyses. The results indicated that the amylose chains were conjugated with the chitosan backbone through the reductive Shiff base bonds (-CH-NH-), and the polymerization degree of the grafted amylose chains was about 25. The dispersion stability of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in water was improved through the complexation of Chit-Amy-III derivatives with SWNTs. Raman, XRD and TEM analyses confirmed that the resultant www.selleckchem.com/products/sn-38.html Chit-Amy-SWNTs complex was formed by the wrapping of the Chit-Amy-III derivative around the SWNTs. The results
of electrochemical analysis indicated that the Chit-Amy-SWNTs complex modified electrode displayed excellent electron conductivity and electrocatalytic activity on H(2)O(2). (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Highly branched alpha-glucan molecules exhibit low digestibility for alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, and abundant in alpha-(1 -> 3)-, alpha-(1 ->-6)-glucosidic linkages and alpha-(1 -> 6)-linked branch points where another glucosyl chain is initiated through art alpha-(1 -> selleck chemicals 3)-linkage. From a culture supernatant of Paenibacillus sp. PP710, we purified alpha-glucosidase (AGL) and alpha-amylase (AMY), which were involved in the production of highly branched alpha-glucan from maltodextrin. AGL catalyzed the transglucosylation reaction of a glucosyl residue to a nonreducing-end glucosyl residue by alpha-1,6-, alpha-1,4-, and
alpha-1,3-linkages. AMY catalyzed the hydrolysis of the alpha-1,4-linkage and the intermolecular or intramolecular transfer of maltooligosaccharide like cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase). It. also catalyzed the transfer of an alpha-1,4-glucosyl chain to a C3- or C4-hydroxyl group in the alpha-1,4- or alpha-1,6-linked nonreducing-end residue ACY-738 cell line or the alpha-1,6-linked residue located in the other chains. Hence AMY was regarded as a novel enzyme. We think that the mechanism of formation of highly branched alpha-glucan from maltodextrin is as follows: alpha-1,6- and alpha-1,3-linked residues are generated by the transglucosylation of AGL at the nonreducing ends of glucosyl chains. Then AMY catalyzes the transfer of alpha-1,4-chains to C3- or C4-hydroxyl groups in the alpha-1,4- or alpha-1,6-linked residues generated by AGL. Thus the concerted reactions of both AGL and AMY are necessary to produce the highly branched a-glucan from maltodextrin.
The toxicity of four CA inhibitors (CAI): acetazolamide (AZM), methazolamide (MZM), ethoxolamide (ETX) and dorzolamide (DZA) were evaluated in larvae of Anopheles albimanus by monitoring mortality 24, 48 and 72 hours post application, at a concentration of 50 ug/ml diluted in dimethyl sulfoxide previously. All IAC reduced the population of larvae in variable proportions. ETX showed the highest toxicity, achieving more than 80% mortality after 24 hours and 98% after 72 hours of application. The CAI, mTOR inhibitor AZM, MZM and DZA showed less toxicity ( smaller than 50% mortality). Our results
indicate that the CAI, including ETX in particular, is a worthy candidate as an alternative for the control of An. albimanus, which is considered a primary vector of malaria in Colombia.”
“Highly concise and stereospecific CYT387 in vitro routes to cis and trans fusion, carrying various functionality at one of the bridgehead carbons, have been accomplished.”
aim of the present study was to investigate whether real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has a low identification rate for samples with low acid-fast bacilli (AFB) grades, including those obtained using bronchoscopy. When 50 smear-positive samples were compared by AFB score and PCR result, PCR was 100% successful in identifying AFB 2+ and AFB 3+ samples. However, only 14 of 26(52%) AFB 1+ samples were identified. In paucibacillary smear-positive samples, PCR https://www.selleckchem.com/products/crt0066101.html is not reliable enough to exclude tuberculosis, but in smear-positive patients with high AFB grades PCR can immediately change the clinical management of the disease.”
“Purpose: Our aim was to compare the accuracy of family- or digease-specific targeted haplotyping and direct-mutation-detection strategies with the accuracy of genome-wide mapping of the parental origin of each chromosome, or karyomapping, by single-nudeotide
polymorphism genotyping of the parents, a dose relative of known disease status, and the embryo cell(s) used for preimplantation genetic diagnosis of single-gene-defects in. a single cell or small numbers of cells biopsied from human embryos following in vitro fertilization. Methods: Genomic DNA and whole-genome amplification products from. embryo samples, which were previously diagnosed by targeted haplotyping, were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymor phisms genome-wide detection and retrospectively analyzed blind by karyomapping. Results: Single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and karyomapping were successful in 213/218 (97.7%) samples from 44 preimplantation genetic diagnosis cycles for 25 single-gene defects with various modes of inheritance distributed widely across the genome. Karyomapping was concordant with targeted haplotyping in 208 (97.7%) samples, and the five nonconcordant samples were all in consanguineous regions with limited or inconsistent haplotyping results.
Despite widespread study, ofatumumab and GA101 have not been compared with each other, nor studied for their interactions with monocytes and macrophages which are critical for the efficacy of anti-CD20
Abs in murine models. In CLL cells, we show that direct cell death and complement-dependent cytotoxicity are greatest with GA101 and ofatumumab, respectively. GA101 promotes enhanced NK cell activation and Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity at high Ab concentrations. Ofatumumab elicits superior Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis with monocyte-derived macrophages. GA101 demonstrated see more reduced activation of monocytes with diminished pERK,
TNF-alpha release, and Fc gamma RIIa recruitment to lipid rafts. These data demonstrate that GA101 and ofatumumab are both superior to rituximab against CLL cells via different mechanisms of potential tumor elimination. These findings bear relevance to potential combination strategies with each of these anti-CD20 Abs in the treatment of CLL. The Journal of Immunology, 2013, 190: 2702-2711.”
“We previously reported that Dot1a center dot AF9 complex represses transcription of the epithelial Na+ channel subunit alpha (alpha-ENaC) SN-38 order gene in mouse inner medullary collecting duct mIMCD3 cells and mouse kidney. Aldosterone relieves this repression by down-regulating the complex through MK-0518 clinical trial various mechanisms. Whether these mechanisms are sufficient and conserved in human
cells or can be applied to other aldosterone-regulated genes remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that human embryonic kidney 293T cells express the three ENaC subunits and all of the ENaC transcriptional regulators examined. These cells respond to aldosterone and display benzamil-sensitive Na+ currents, as measured by whole-cell patch clamping. We also show that AF17 and AF9 competitively bind to the same domain of Dot1a in multiple assays and have antagonistic effects on expression of an alpha-ENaC promoter-luciferase construct. Overexpression of Dot1a or AF9 decreased mRNA expression of the ENaC subunits and their transcriptional regulators and reduced benzamil-sensitive Na+ currents. AF17 overexpression caused the opposite effects, accompanied by redirection of Dot1a from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and reduction in histone H3 K79 methylation. The nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B blocked the effect of AF17 overexpression on H3 K79 hypomethylation. RNAi-mediated knockdown of AF17 yielded nuclear enrichment of Dot1a and histone H3 K79 hypermethylation. As with AF9, AF17 displays nuclear and cytoplasmic co-localization with Sgk1.
Plasma FGFC1 and tissue extracts were measured using HPLC with UV detection. FGFC1 was detected using a C-18 column with a gradient eluted mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (0.1%
trifluoroacetic acid), 1.0 mL/min. Chromatograms were monitored at 265 nm (column temperature: 40 degrees C). Pharmacokinetic data indicate that FGFC1 fitted well to a two-compartment https://www.selleckchem.com/products/17-DMAG,Hydrochloride-Salt.html model. Elimination half-lives (t(1/2)) of FGFC1 were 21.51 +/- 2.17 and 23.22 +/- 2.11 min for 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. AUC(0-t) were 412.19 +/- 19.09, 899.09 +/- 35.86 mu g/mLmin, systemic clearance (CL) was 0.023 +/- 0.002, 0.022 +/- 0.002 ((mg/kg)/(mu g/mL)/min) and the mean residence time (MRT) was 10.15 +/- 10.97, 9.65 +/- 1.40 min at 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. No significant differences were observed in the systemic clearance and mean residence time at the tested doses, suggesting linear pharmacokinetics in rats. Tissue distribution data reveal that FGFC1 distributed rapidly in most tissues except the brain and that
the highest concentration of the drug was in the liver. In the small intestine, FGFC1 initially increased and then declined, but remained Selleckchem OICR-9429 comparatively high 60 min after administration, suggesting that enterohepatic circulation may exist (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Despite the crucial aid that newly developed target therapies are providing to chemotherapy and stem cell transplant, the cure for many hematological malignancies is still an unmet need.
Although available therapies are able to induce an effective debulking of the tumor, most of the time, an insidious minimal residual disease survives current treatments and it is responsible for an immediate or delayed relapse. Peptide-derived antitumor vaccines have been developed with the idea that an artificially “educated” immune www.selleckchem.com/products/Cediranib.html system may exert an active specific antitumor response able to control and ultimately eradicate underlying post-treatment residual disease. This review will summarize current knowledge of peptide vaccines for hematological malignancies, trying to analyze promises and pitfalls of a safe and intelligent tool that after many years from its first appearance has not yet established its potential role as alternative immune mediated therapeutic approach for hematopoietic tumors.”
“To investigate the effect of a year of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on immune reconstruction and cytokine production in HIV/AIDS patients, 35 AIDS patients were recruited for HAART treatment and 35 healthy volunteers were assigned as controls.