At this stage the lagoon still had to form and the rivers were flowing directly into the sea. The abundance of fresh water due to the presence of numerous rivers would probably have convinced the first communities to move to the margins of the future lagoon. Numerous sites belonging to the recent Mesolithic Period (from 6000–5500 to 5500–4500 BC) were found in close proximity to the palaeorivers Sunitinib of this area (Bianchin Citton, 1994).
During the Neolithic Period (5500–3300 BC) communities settled in a forming lagoonal environment, while the first lithic instruments in the city of Venice date back to the late Neolithic–Eneolithic Period (3500–2300 BC) (Bianchin Citton, 1994). During the third millennium BC (Eneolithic or Copper Age: 3300–2300 BC) there was a demographic boom, as evidenced by the many findings in the mountains and in the plain. This population increase would also have affected the Venice Lagoon (Fozzati, 2013). In the first centuries of the second millennium BC, corresponding to the ancient Bronze Age in Northern Italy, there was a major demographic fall extending
from Veneto to the Friuli area. It is just in the advanced phase of the Middle Bronze Age (14th century BC) that a new almost systematic occupation of the area took place, with the maximal demographical expansion occurring in the recent Bronze Age (13th selleck products century BC) (Bianchin Citton, 1994 and Fozzati, 2013). Between the years 1000 and 800 BC, with the spreading of the so Palbociclib manufacturer called
Venetian civilization, the cities of Padua and Altino were founded in the mainland and at the northern margins of the lagoon (Fig. 1a), respectively. Between 600 and 200 years BC, the area underwent the Celtic invasions. Starting from the 3rd century BC, the Venetian people intensified their relationship with Rome and at the end of the 1st century BC the Venetian region became part of the roman state. The archeological record suggests a stable human presence in the islands starting from the 2nd century BC onwards. There is a lot of evidence of human settlements in the Northern lagoon from Roman Times to the Early Medieval Age (Canal, 1998, Canal, 2013 and Fozzati, 2013). In this time, the mean sea level increased so that the settlements depended upon the labor-intensive work of land reclamation and consolidation (Ammerman et al., 1999). Archeological investigation has revealed two phases of human settlements in the lagoon: the first phase began in the 5th–6th century AD, while a second more permanent phase began in the 6th–7th century. This phase was “undoubtedly linked to the massive and permanent influx of the Longobards, which led to the abandonment of many of the cities of the mainland” (De Min, 2013). Although some remains of the 6th–7th century were found in the area of S. Pietro di Castello and S.