However, adding the pre-signal system will greatly increase the complexity degree of the optimizations. The occurrence probabilities of detrimental effects, like spillback, residual queues, and storage blocking, will be higher in the pre-signal system. The detrimental
effects will break the traffic progression and reduce the price INK 128 efficiency of the entire system significantly, which should be avoided in the first place. The sorting area is the place where the detrimental effects most likely happen. For the purpose of redistributing the queued vehicles within the sorting area, most vehicles have to implement the activity of lane changing, especially for the movement with small volume or the buses. Lane changing behavior is one of the
most complex behaviors and may be harmful to the traffic progress. Under this situation, the detrimental effects get a significantly high probability to occur during the process of lane changing. Illustrated as in Figure 2(a), the lanes for movements with small volume or the buses are usually located at one side of the road section. A certain portion of vehicles try to change their lanes repeatedly to seek for better environment in the sorting area at a multilane environment, that is, to occupy all lanes of the sorting area. During the process of lane changing, a specific part of the sorting area could not be utilized. Meanwhile, if the length of the sorting area is not enough, there will not be enough space to accomplish the lane changing activity. These vehicles will be forced to change their lane, which may easily block other vehicles and cause storage blocking or spillback. Correspondingly, the safety condition of the system also deteriorates rapidly. The sorting area in Figure 2(a) is an example of negative effects brought about by the short length of sorting area. In order to minimize the detrimental effects that may be caused by lane changing, it is suggested to set a relatively longer sorting area and coordinated signal timing to ensure the lane changing activity is accomplished
with less influence on other vehicles. It should be noticed that when we try to optimize and evaluate the design of the pre-signal system, the driving behaviors during the lane changing must be carefully calibrated. Figure 2 Adverse effects caused by poor design. The type of the pre-signal system also affects the efficiency of the intersection. When we allow vehicles heading to different directions to advance into the sorting area sequentially within one main red, full Cilengitide utilization type pre-signal system will have less lost time than the single movement type. However, even when the vehicles enter the sorting area separately, the vehicles entering later still have high opportunities to conflict with the vehicles already in the sorting area. In this way, the multimovements type pre-signal system may need more road space for the queuing and lane changing activity to avoid the detrimental effects.