The limitation of this study was its retrospective nature. A prospective Everolimus datasheet study with a large sample is needed. No potential conflict of interest has been declared by the authors. “
“Hepatic ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury is an important clinical problem complicating liver surgery and transplantation. The pathogenesis underlying reperfusion injury after warm ischemia is complex, encompassing a multitude of different cell types and
signalling mechanisms innate and/or mobilized to the liver. Since the author’s 2003 review in the Journal, considerable progress has been achieved in enhancing our understanding of some of the pathogenic pathways and crucial mediators of hepatic inflammation such as the heme oxygenase system, CXC chemokines, Toll-like receptors as well as the mode of parenchymal cell death in IR injury. A better appreciation of these mechanisms will accelerate efforts in designing optimal interventions to prevent hepatic IR injury and improve outcomes after liver transplantation. INCB018424 solubility dmso Ischemia reperfusion injury (IR) is a phenomenon whereby cellular damage in a hypoxic organ is accentuated following the re-establishment of oxygen flow. This form of injury was recognized as a clinically important pathological disorder complicating experimental liver transplantation by Toledo-Pereyra and associates
in 1975.1 The transplanted liver was observed to develop at times, congestion, progressive thrombosis and/or graft necrosis resulting in organ failure. It was only in the mid-1980s 上海皓元医药股份有限公司 that the term “reperfusion injury” was generally used in the liver transplantation literature. The concept of reperfusion injury, generally in other tissues, was first floated in the 1930s when electrical abnormalities were observed to complicate the ischemic myocardium.2 Jennings and colleagues documented the development of myocardial necrosis in dogs following temporary coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion.3 Hearse et al. demonstrated the release of intracellular enzymes from reperfused ischemic canine myocardium and probably were the first group to use the term “reperfusion
injury” to describe their observations.4 This concept soon became widely recognised to occur in several other organ systems such as the central nervous system, heart, lung, intestine, skeletal muscle and kidney. Hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury can be categorized into warm IR and cold storage reperfusion injury. Warm IR injury is of relevance clinically in hepatic surgery, liver transplantation, circulatory shock, some types of toxic liver injury, sinusoidal obstruction and Budd-Chiari syndromes. Cold storage reperfusion injury occurs during organ preservation prior to transplantation. While there are many pathogenic mechanisms in common between warm and cold IR injury, there are several salient differences. For the purpose of this review, focus will be placed on warm IR injury.