, 2003; Kreft, 2004) while others incorporate detailed chemistry of the microenvironment (Zhang & Klapper, 2010). The choice is driven by the modeling aims. In the former models, the goal is to understand how the distribution of different bacterial types develops and depends on the phenotypic changes that occur. The latter model requires detailed chemistry in GSK1120212 clinical trial order to observe the mineralization processes and their dependence on the bacterial distribution. Multispecies models include the physical environment to varying degrees depending on how important this is assumed to be. Some models neglect the fluid transport completely (Kreft,
2004; Cogan, 2006). Others neglect any spatial variations at all, focusing on temporal heterogeneity (Cogan, 2006). Some include only caricatures indicating an upstream/downstream bias (Jones et al., 2003; De Leenheer & Cogan, 2009). Still others include detailed descriptions of the fluid motion (Cogan et al., 2005; Alpkvist & Klapper, 2007; Cogan, 2008; Eberl & Sudarsan, 2008). These choices are driven by the tension between biological realism and mathematical tractability. If the biology demands too much, the mathematical understanding may be extremely limited. If the mathematical
understanding is very selleck chemicals llc precise often the biological representation is far from satisfactory. Based on current experimental directions, one of the most pressing modeling
questions is ‘How much detail is required?’, or ‘What sorts of simplifications can be introduced while still accurately depicting the biology?’. We close this section with two lists. The first is a list of questions/needs of the experimentalists that appear to be within reach of specific mathematical approaches. This list is of course incomplete, but are topics brought up during the conference Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II that may motivate new research in this field. The second is a list of tools that models offer that might be useful to experimentalists. Such tools may be unknown to bench scientists not engaged in mathematical modeling, but are key to bridging the two groups in this field. Experimental needs: 1 How much of the structure depends on the details of the EPS composition? In particular, no biofilm model incorporates a detailed structure of the EPS. This implies that EPS interactions and EPS substratum interactions are not well established, theoretically. This level of detail is key to future biofilm modeling, as it will aid in the understanding of biofilm initialization as well as interactions between biofilm structures. EPS is clearly a key component of chronic and acute biofilm-related infections such as those relating to P. aeruginosa in the cystic fibrosis patient’s lungs and staphylococcal infections of foreign devices (artificial joints, catheters, etc.).