All HBV plasmids expressed detectable HBsAg and HBeAg in mice ser

All HBV plasmids expressed detectable HBsAg and HBeAg in mice sera (Figure 6). As compared to the control mice (HBV+L1254), B245 and B376 treatments reduced HBsAg expression by over 99% in all five HBV genotypes. Furthermore, B1581 and B1789 treatments suppressed HBsAg by over ACY-1215 concentration 99% in mice infected with HBV genotypes A, B, C and D. In a novel W29 strain representing genotype I however, B1581 and B1789 treatments only reduced HBsAg expression by about 90%.

With regards to serum HBeAg for genotypes A, B, C, D and I, B245, B376, B1581 and B1789 treatments suppressed HBeAg by 96%~99%, 79%~99%, 94%~99%, and 89%~99%, respectively. The overview of the results shows that B245 is the most

potent agent. Figure 6 Kinetics of serum HBV antigen (HBsAg and HBeAg) of various HBV genotypes in RNAi-treated mice. For each group (each line in the figure), the experiment was repeated using two different groups of five mice. Due to limited serum resources, each sample was diluted 10-fold. (A) Genotype Ae (N10 group), (B) Genotype Ba (C4371 group), (C) Genotype AZD1390 research buy C1 (Y1021 group), (D) Genotype D1 (Y10 group), (E) Genotype I1 (W29 group). Discussion Activated RNAi pathway can silence HBV replication and expression [13, 14]. However, in most previous studies, the activity of RNAi against HBV is often evaluated with only one HBV strain [15–18]. Nine HBV genotypes (including a newly identified genotype “”I”"), designated as the letters A through I, have been recognized with an accompanying sequence divergence of >8% over the entire genome selleck chemicals llc [19–21]. The influence of genotypes on HBV replication efficacy and antigen expression level had been proved to be various and that may further associate with clinical outcomes and antiviral treatments responses [22]. Hence, RNAi designed for one genotype may not necessarily be effective against another genotype. Given the high heterogeneity of HBV strains and the sensitivity of siRNA to the sequence changes,

designing siRNA targets against the conservative site on HBV genome is essential to ensure activity across all genotypes [23]. In shRNA expression systems, two different promoters are predominantly used: U6 and H1, both driven by human polymerase III (poly III). Compared to Pol II promoters, Pol III promoters generally possess a greater capacity to synthesize RNA BMN 673 concentration transcripts of a higher yield and rarely induce interferon responses [17, 24]. However, a previous study noted that U6 Pol III-expressed shRNAs may cause serious toxicity in vivo by saturating the endogenous miR pathway [25]. In this report, we constructed 40 shRNA plasmids (Table 1) with various targets, using a human H1 Pol III promoter.

The Table of Additional File 2 lists all significant spot abundan

The concise GW786034 price protein lists in the Tables 1, 2 and 3 are of particular interest in the context of iron homeostasis. Only if protein abundance ratios differed substantially comparing the -Fe vs. +Fe datasets at 26°C and 37°C, the temperature dependency was pointed out in the following paragraphs. Table 1 Abundance differences of Y. pestis proteins profiled in periplasmic fractions of iron-rich vs. iron-starved cells Spot No a) Gene locus b) gene name c) Protein description c) Subc. Loc. d) Fur/RyhB

e) Mascot Score f) exp Mr (Da) exp pI 26°C, Vs (-Fe) g) 26°C, Vs (+Fe) h) 26-ratio -Fe/+Fe i) 26°C P-value j) 37-ratio -Fe/+Fe k) 53 y0028 malE phosphatase inhibitor periplasmic maltose-binding protein PP   2150 43937 5.53 0.72 5.98 0.121 0.000 0.760 54 y0137 degQ serine endoprotease PP   1077 55588 6.43 0.39 0.11 2.41 0.0177 0.900 55 y0291 – putative tospovirus resistance protein D U   486 18721 5.44 2.05 0.47 4.320 0.000 N.D. 56 y0541 hmuT hemin-binding periplasmic protein PP Fur 228 27164 5.85 0.46 0.11 4.328 0.000 > 20 57 y0542 hmuS hemin uptake system component U Fur 989 38188 5.56 0.53 0.19 2.780 0.000 2.091 58 y0869 Ro-3306 cybC cytochrome b(562) PP Fur 626 5035 5.64 0.13 0.03 4.746 N.D. 3.160 59 y0964 frsA fermentation/respiration switch protein U   586 51326 5.98 0.15 0.07 2.208 0.000 1.875 60 y1128 bglX putative beta-glucosidase PP   2324 81506 5.43 3.01 0.52 5.822 0.000 1.740 61 y1189 gltI solute-binding periplasmic protein of glutamate/aspartate ABC transporter PP   2512 35927 7.20 0.41 2.91 0.141 0.005 Flavopiridol (Alvocidib) N.D. 62 y1223 nrdE ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase 2, alpha subunit U Fur 198 79914 6.32 0.03 – > 20 N.D. N.D. 63 y1222 nrdF ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase 2,

beta chain U Fur 561 39335 5.11 0.77 – > 20 N.D. > 20 64 y1430 – putative putative periplasmic iron-binding signal peptide protein U   3359 41211 6.09 – 0.57 < 0.05 N.D. < 0.05 65 y1526 yfuA putative solute-binding protein for iron ABC transporter PP Fur 1979 39620 6.65 2.36 1.46 1.618 0.061 N.D. 66 y1607 hisJ histidine-binding periplasmic protein of high-affinity histidine transport system PP   1494 31529 5.01 0.29 0.93 0.309 0.000 0.350 67 y1744 - hypothetical protein y1744 CY   324 5183 5.92 0.38 - > 20 N.D. 4.510 68 y1897 yfeA periplasmic-binding protein for iron and manganese ABC transporter CM Fur 1201 31395 5.80 2.87 0.63 4.576 0.000 4.780 69 y1936 sufC iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein SufC, ATPase component ML Fur 726 28460 5.10 0.16 0.02 7.514 0.000 > 20 70 y1937 sufD cysteine desulfurase activator complex subunit SufD U Fur 369 60476 6.76 0.06 – > 20 N.D. N.D.

0 μg) The results revealed that both ligands compete for the bin

0 μg). The results revealed that both ligands compete for the binding with Lsa33 as a decrease of 40% in the binding was already detected with 0.25 μg of laminin (*, P < 0.05) (Figure 7C). These experiments were performed in triplicate and Figure 7 shows one representative data of two independent experiments. Figure 7 Inhibition of L. interrogans attachment to immobilized laminin and PLG by recombinant proteins; The effect of laminin concentration on the binding selleck chemicals of PLG to Lsa33. (A) Laminin or PLG (1 μg/well) was adsorbed onto microtiter plates followed by incubation with increasing concentrations

of Lsa33 (0 to 10 μg) and in (B) laminin was adsorbed onto microtiter plates followed by incubation with increasing concentrations of Lsa25 (0 to 10 μg). In (A) and (B) the incubations were allowed to proceed for 90 min at 37°C. Live leptospires (100 μl/well of 4 X 107 L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni strain M20 leptospires) were added and incubated for another 90 min at 37°C. The unbound leptospires were washed away, and the quantification of bound leptospires AZD3965 ic50 was performed indirectly by anti – LipL32 antibodies produced in mice (1: 4,000 dilution) followed by horseradish peroxidase

– conjugated antimouse IgG antibodies. Each point represents the mean absorbance value at 492 nm ± standard deviation of three replicates. Data are representative of two independent experiments (*P < 0.05). (C) The effect of laminin on the binding of PLG (10 μg/ml) to immobilized rLIC11834 (10 μg/ml) was assessed with the addition of increasing concentrations of laminin (0 to 1.0 μg). The detection of rLIC11834-bound PLG was performed by use of specific antibodies anti - PLG. Bars represent the mean absorbance values ± standard deviation of four replicates for each condition and are representative for of two independent experiments. Results of statistically significant interference on the binding in comparison with the control (no addition of laminin) are shown: *P < 0.05. Discussion FDA-approved Drug Library nmr complement is a key component of the innate immune

system responsible for protection against pathogenic microorganisms [33]. Factor H is a host fluid – phase regulator of the alternative complement pathway. Pathogenic leptospiral complement – resistant strains were found to bind factor H from human serum and this interaction seems to be associated to their serum resistance [31, 34]. C4b – binding protein is an inhibitor of complement classical pathway system. This protein controls the complement classical pathway by interfering with the formation and regeneration of C3 convertase and acting as a cofactor to the serine proteinase factor I in the proteolytic inactivation of C4b [33, 35]. It has been shown that pathogenic leptospiral strains can obtain C4bp from the host and that this acquisition preserves its cofactor activity [36].

Results Biofilm All sixty ST1 isolates tested were able to produc

Results Biofilm All sixty ST1 isolates tested were able to produce biofilm on inert surfaces. The majority (58.3% and 25%; respectively) exhibited a moderate (BU varying from 0.468 to 0.901) or strong (BU varying from 1.008 to 3.615) biofilm phenotypes (Figure 1, top). For 19 randomly selected isolates, the ability to accumulate biofilm on human Fn-coated surfaces increased significantly (p<0.01 to p<0.0001) when compared with that on inert surfaces (Figure 1, bottom). Figure 1 Biofilm

formed by ST1 isolates. Top: Percentage of the total 60 ST1 isolates displaying strong, moderate and weak biofilm phenotypes. Wells show the different biofilm phenotypes formed on inert polystyrene surfaces by representative ST1 isolates. Bottom: Biofilm formed on inert or fibronectin-coated surfaces by 19 ST1 isolates. Proteinaceous nature of the biofilm Treatment with proteinase

K virtually disrupted preformed Crenolanib biofilms LY3023414 for 12 ST1 isolates BMN 673 cell line tested. However, the carbohydrate oxidant metaperiodate almost did not affect the biofilm accumulated by these isolates (Figure 2, top). CLSM studies revealed that the agr-dysfunctional 08–008 accumulated a denser and compact biofilm when compared to the heterogeneous film formed by the agr-functional isolate (96/05). Despite the stronger biofilm phenotype displayed by the isolate 08–008, proteinase K could significantly remove the biological film accumulated (Figure 2, bottom). Figure 2 Proteinaceous nature of the biofilm. Top: Effect of 1mM/well sodium metaperiodate or 6U/well proteinase K on preformed biofilm. Wells show the effect of these compounds on biofilms preformed on inert polystyrene surfaces by representative

ST1 isolates. Bottom: Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images of proteinase K-treated and -untreated biofilms stained with SYTO 9. The square indicates the slice of the biofilm from which the XY image was taken. The horizontal bar indicates the location of the X plane from which the cross-section was taken. Isolate 08–008 (strong biofilm producer, agr-dysfunctional), 96/05 (moderate biofilm producer, agr-functional). Role of eDNA in ST1 biofilm No correlation was detected between the activity of bacterial DNase and the levels of biofilm accumulated by 17 USA400-related isolates displaying strong, moderate or weak Interleukin-2 receptor biofilm phenotypes (Figure 3, top). The addition of 28U/well DNase I in the culture media did not significantly affect the biofilm formed by these ST1 isolates. However, when this concentration was increased to 56U/well, a significant (p=0.0078) reduction of 31% in biofilm accumulation was detected (BU untreated =0.91±0.1 and treated =0.63±0.078; Figure 3, left bottom). In addition, the concentration of eDNA recovered from the supernatant of the strong biofilm producer (BU=1.167 ±0.07) isolate 08–008 was 182 ng/mL, three-times higher than that determined for the weaker producer (BU=0.348±0.

Experimental reflectance spectra were analyzed by applying a fast

Experimental reflectance spectra were analyzed by applying a fast Fourier transform (FFT) using the software IGOR Pro (http://​www.​wavemetrics.​com). Details of the analysis can be found in [17]. In order to allow for a direct comparison of the effective optical thickness (EOT) values and FFT amplitude values from different pSi samples, all FFT spectra were normalized by setting the highest value equal to 1 and the lowest value equal to 0. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements were carried out with a Malvern Instruments Zetasizer Nano ZS (Malvern Instruments, Malvern, UK). Refractive CAL101 indices, dielectric constants, and viscosities of the ethanol/water mixtures were

taken selleck screening library from literature [18, 19]. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images were obtained with a JPK Nanowizard II (JPK Instruments AG, Berlin, Germany) in intermittent contact mode (cantilever: Veeco NP-S10, Plainview, NY, USA). Studies on the swelling behavior of the polyNIPAM spheres, attached to the porous silicon surface, were performed in liquid. PSi fabrication Si substrates were cleaned prior to etching by removal of a sacrificial layer of pSi with a strong base. For this purpose, Si substrates were anodized in a solution composed of 3:1 aqueous HF (48 %)/ethanol at 100 mA for 20 s. The resulting porous layer was removed by immersion in a 1 M

KOH solution for several minutes. Then, the Si samples were rinsed with ethanol and immersed a second time in a 3:1 aqueous HF (48 %)/ethanol electrolyte. PSi monolayers were formed by electrochemically etching at 100 mA for Ralimetinib nmr 5 min. The resulting pSi was rinsed with ethanol and blown dry

in a stream of nitrogen. To stabilize the pSi, the samples were oxidized at 300°C for 1 h in an oven. PolyNIPAM microsphere synthesis PolyNIPAM microspheres were prepared by an aqueous free-radical precipitation polymerization according Etomidate to Pelton and Chibante [20]. Briefly, 0.19 mol/L NIPAM and 0.05 mol/L BIS were dissolved in 124-mL deionized water (approximately 18.2 MΩ cm). The solution was heated to approximately 70°C under inert atmosphere and stirring. Potassium peroxodisulfate (KPS) solution (0.002 mol/L) was added to start the polymerization, which continued for 6 h at approximately 70°C. The resulting polyNIPAM microspheres were purified by subsequent centrifugation, decantation, and redispersion in deionized water. The dispersion was finally filtered (Acrodisc 25-mm syringe filters with Versapor membranes (Pall GmbH, Dreieich, Germany), pore diameter 1.2 μm) and diluted 1:25 (v/v) with deionized water. Deposition of polyNIPAM spheres onto pSi Non-close packed arrays of hydrogel microspheres were deposited on pSi surfaces according to Quint and Pacholski [21]. Briefly, 60 μL of the diluted polyNIPAM dispersion was placed on the oxidized pSi monolayer.

Figure 6 shows that HBx or HBx 113 mutant but not HBx120 or HBx12

Figure 6 shows that HBx or HBx 113 mutant but not HBx120 or Small molecule library price HBx121 is able to inhibit the excision of the platinated fragment. Figure 6 HBx protein inhibits excision of damaged DNA in dual incision assay. Measurement of the effect of X protein on the dual excision of the Damaged DNA using 40 μg of HeLa whole cell extract and 20 ng of Pt-DNA. GST (lane 1) or GST-X (lane 2), GST-XAsp113 (lane 3), GST-XGlu120 (lane 4), GST-X Glu121 (lane 5). Discussion HBx protein has been proposed to play a role in the development of HCC. HBx has been shown to possess pleiotropic functions including impairment of cell cycle buy LY2606368 progression [51], interaction with transcription

machinery [9–13], and cell signal transduction and apoptosis mechanisms [29, 52–54]. Furthermore, HBx associated physically with p53 resulting in the sequestration of p53 in the cytoplasm (28), inhibition of p53 function including its DNA binding and transactivation activities [55] as well as p53 interaction with XPB protein [55]. Several studies suggested a potential role of

HBx cellular DNA repair process. This is borne out by its associations with TFIIH [25, 28], a probable DNA repair factor UV-DDB [23, see more 42, 56], p53 tumor suppressor protein [55, 57], ss-DNA [36], and UV-damaged DNA [58, 59]. HBx expression inhibit DNA repair Our study provides evidence that HBx can inhibit DNA repair pathway. In the absence of UV damage, cells expressing HBx were found to be similar to control cells in cell growth measured by colony formation assay (Figure 1). Similar observations were reported by Lee and co-workers [60]. They demonstrated that HBx expression did not affect the morphology, viability, and cell cycle/apoptosis profiles or DNA repair machinery of UV-untreated HepG2 cells. However, HBx-expressing cells exhibited increased sensitivity to UV damage and reduced DNA repair capacity. It has been shown that

mice carrying HBx as a transgene show a direct correlation between the level of HBx expression and Branched chain aminotransferase the likelihood to develop HCC [61, 62]. However certain lineages of HBx transgenic mice do not exhibit tumour development unless coupled with other factors such as exposure to the hepatocarcinogen diethylnitrosamine [63] or when combined with c-myc induction [64]. It has been suggested previously that HBx does not directly cause cancer but plays a role in liver oncogenesis as a cofactor or tumour promoter [60]. Chronic HBV infection may present a long-term opportunity for an initiating event to occur, and HBx may act by modifying cellular regulatory/control mechanisms facilitating the culmination of the transformation process in the cell. In this regard, a highly probable tumour-initiating event is DNA damage. HBx mutants failed to interact with TFIIH We continue to characterize the specific domains of HBx involved in affecting the DNA repair process.

Like other administrative data, there is always a risk of misclas

Like other administrative data, there is always a risk of misclassification when reporting diagnostic information. For this reason, we excluded for the base case results those osteoporosis cases without a fracture or relevant

intervention codes. Although we used the most responsible diagnosis at discharge to identify the population of study, some of the days spent in hospitals may be related to other LXH254 conditions. In the absence of national data, we extrapolated provincial data to national levels by adjusting for differences in age and gender characteristics. However, we were not able to adjust for fracture types which may be different between provinces. However, little differences in hip fracture rates were observed between Canadian Alisertib provinces [39]. We also used provincial unit costs assuming that the data may be representative of other Canadian provinces, which may not be true. However, we found very little variation in the average value of the RIWs between Canadian provinces (less than 5%). Similarly in the absence of data,

the costs associated with primary and community care of fractures were not captured in our analyses (e.g., vertebral fractures most commonly treated in outpatient settings), which may result in an underestimation of the true cost of osteoporosis in Canada. In addition, the costs of therapy may have been underestimated as calcium and vitamin D supplementation costs SB273005 cell line were not included in our estimates or the costs associated with premature mortality. In the absence of data, we also determined the rate of attribution to osteoporosis for non-hip non-vertebral fractures to match Mackey’s estimates, which may have introduced some bias in our calculations. However, the results changed little when Quebec data were used for the attribution rate of osteoporosis in women [22]. Finally we excluded fractures at sites that are not typically related

Urease to osteoporosis, such as fractures of the heel, toe, hand, finger, face, or skull. In conclusion, the burden of osteoporosis in FY 2007/2008 was estimated to range from $2.3 billion to $4.1 billion. Since the prevalence of osteoporosis increases with age, the burden of osteoporosis is likely to increase over the next decade. As such, prevention of osteoporotic fractures among patients at high risk of fractures is key to decreasing the human and economic burden of osteoporosis. Future research should continue to provide detailed information on the burden of osteoporosis by gender, age group, and fracture type that could be used for resource allocation and prioritization. Acknowledgment Study funded by an unrestricted grant from Amgen Canada. The authors acknowledge the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy for use of data contained in the Population Health Research Data Repository (HIPC project #2009/2010-09).

The analysis of the complete set of putatively-secretory proteins

The analysis of the complete set of putatively-secretory proteins from eight fungi showed that 38-61% of LY2835219 cost them display Ser/Thr-rich regions, i.e. regions of at least 20 residues with a minimum Ser/Thr content of 40%, and that 18-31% of them contain pHGRs, i.e. regions of 20 or more residues of which at least 25% are predicted to be O-glycosylated. pHGRs were found anywhere along proteins but have a slight preference for the proteins ends, especially the C-terminus. Methods Prediction of O-glycosylation sites

in secretory proteins Protein sequences used in this study were obtained from publically available databases. The whole set of proteins coded by the genomes of Magnaporthe grisea (strain 70–15), Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (strain 1980), Ustilago maydis (strain 521), Aspergillus nidulans (strain FGSC A4), and Neurospora crassa (strain N15) were obtained from the Broad Institute [27]. Those of Botrytis cinerea (strain T4), Trichoderma reesei (strain QM6a), and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain S288C) were obtained respectively from URGI [28], JGI [29], and SGD [30]. The predicted protein sequences for each genome were downloaded and transferred to a Microsoft Excel 2010 spreadsheet with the aid of Fasta2tab [31]. All proteins were then tested for the presence of a signal peptide for secretion, using the standalone version of SignalP 3.0 [32]. SignalP 3.0 has a false positive rate

of 15%. Those proteins which gave positive result in selleck compound each genome, i.e. all proteins putatively entering the secretory pathway at the endoplasmic reticulum, were then run through the web-based O-glycosylation prediction tool NetOGlyc 3.1 [12]. Results from NetOGlyc were saved as a text file from within the web browser and fed to Microsoft Word 2010 to transform these into an appropriate table format that could be incorporated into Thiamine-diphosphate kinase a Microsoft Excel 2010 spreadsheet (Additional file 2). The sets of proteins with randomized O-glycosylation positions were generated from the latter with the aid of the Rand function in Microsoft Excel. Each randomized set contains the same proteins as the original one. i.e. all signalP-positive

proteins in a given genome, and the number of predicted O-glycosylation sites in every individual protein is also the same. The difference is that the position along the protein of every individual site was chosen by the generation of an appropriate random number (according to the length of each individual protein), being careful not to assign two sites to the same residue. Detection of Ser/Thr-rich regions and pHGRs To study the presence, in signalP-positive fungal proteins, of regions that are either rich in Ser/Thr or rich in predicted O-glycosylation, we first developed a BIBW2992 in vivo simple algorithm that runs as a macro (named XRR) in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet (Additional file 4), which was written with Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications.

illeg , Art 52 1] ≡ Agaricus clavipes Pers , Syn meth fung (G

illeg., Art. 52.1] ≡ Agaricus clavipes Pers., Syn. meth. fung. (Göttingen)

2: 353 (1801)]. Basidiomes clitocyboid, gymnocarpous (veils absent), medium-sized, not lichenized; pileus at first convex with an inrolled margin, becoming indented or infundibuliform with age, often with KU57788 a low umbo in center; surface not hygrophanous (but context hygrophanous), smooth or with appressed fibers in center, brown, tan, grayish or olivaceous brown. Lamellae decurrent, close or subclose, white or cream. Stipe sub-bulbous, cylindrical or tapered to base, context spongy, often becoming hollow, surface silky-fibrillose or fibrillose and often minutely hairy. Basidiospores broadly fusiform, ellipsoid or subglobose, hyaline, strongly guttulate, not see more cyanophilous, inamyloid, appearing smooth with light microscopy, minutely roughened-rugose when viewed with SEM; basidia 4-sterigmate; cystidia absent; lamellar trama hyphae cylindric, mostly thin-walled, some walls up to 0.5 μm thick, bidirectional (Fig. 26); subhymenium interwoven; pileipellis a cutis of subparallel hyphae, pigments intracellular; medallion clamp connections present. Type species produces aldehyde dehydrogenase and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Gregarious or caespitose, growing saprotrophically in forest litter, often under conifers. Differs from Clitocybe s.s. (typified by C. nebularis)

in having acyanophilous spores; differs from Cuphophyllus in having basidia less than 5 times the length of the basidiospores and subparallel rather than interwoven pileipellis CYTH4 hyphae; differs from Infundibulicybe (Tricholomataceae) in having

basidiospores that are GANT61 manufacturer uniguttulate and ellipsoid, broadly fusoid or subglobose rather than lacrymoid with few small guttules, and walls roughened rather than smooth under SEM; differs from Lichenomphalia in being saprotrophic rather than biotrophic with bryophytes and having roughened rather than smooth spores under SEM (Figs. 27, 28 and 29). Fig. 26 Ampulloclitocybe clavipes lamellar cross section (DJL06TN40, Tennessee, Great Smoky Mt. Nat. Park, USA). Scale bar = 20 μm Fig. 27 Color photographs of examples of subfamily Hygrocyboideae. a–k. Tribe Hygrocybeae. a–j. Hygrocybe. a–f. Subg. Hygrocybe. a–b. Sect. Hygrocybe. a. Subsect. Hygrocybe, H. conica (Jens H. Petersen/Mycokey, Denmark). b. Subsect. Macrosporae, H. acutoconica (D. Jean Lodge, Tennessee, USA). c. Sect. Velosae, H. aff. hypohaemacta (Claudio Angelini, Dominican Republic; inset showing pseudoveil by D.J. Lodge, Puerto Rico). d. Sect. Pseudofirmae, H. appalachianensis (Steve Trudell, Great Smoky Mt. National Park, USA). e. Sect. Microsporae, H. citrinovirens (Geoffrey Kibbey, Wales, UK). f. Sect. Chlorophanae, H. chlorophana (Jan Vesterholt, Denmark). g–j. Hygrocybe subg. Pseudohygrocybe. g–i. Sect. Coccineae. g. Subsect. Coccineae, H. coccinea (Jens H. Petersen/Mycokey, Denmark). h. Subsect. Siccae, H. reidii (David Boertmann, Denmark). i. Subsect. Squamulosae, H. turunda (Jens H.

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