(J Vase Surg 2011;54:526-8.)”
antipsychotics (APDs) have a high affinity for muscarinic receptors, which is thought to contribute to their therapeutic efficacy, or side effect profile. In order to define how muscarinic receptor gene expression is affected by atypical or typical APDs, rats were treated with chronic (2.58 mg/kg) PCP (a psychotomimetic) or vehicle, plus clozapine (20 mg/kg/day) or haloperidol (1 mg/kg/day), and M1, M2 and M3 receptor mRNA levels were determined in brain sections. Negligible changes in M2 or M3 muscarinic mRNA were detected in any region after clozapine or haloperidol. selleck chemicals llc Chronic PCP administration increased M1 mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex, which was not reversed by either chronic clozapine or haloperidol treatment.
Chronic clozapine treatment in combination with PCP treatment decreased M1 receptor mRNA levels in the nucleus accumbens core, whereas chronic haloperidol in combination with PCP treatment increased M1 receptor mRNA levels in the ventromedial hypothalamus and medial amygdala. Thus M1 receptor gene expression is targeted by APDs, although the regions affected differ according to the APD treatment and whether PCP has been administered. The different brain circuitry modulated, may reflect the differing modes of action of typical and atypical APDs. These data provide support for the dysregulation of M1 receptors in schizophrenia, and furthermore, modulation by antipsychotic agents in the treatment of schizophrenia.
This article is part of a Special Issue Mocetinostat supplier entitled ‘Schizophrenia’. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A total of 62 patients with major depressive disorder were analyzed in the study. Patients were evaluated for 11 weeks in an open label design to investigate the differential effects of reboxetine, sertraline and venlafaxine on thyroid hormones. Serum thyrotrophin (TSH), thyroxine (T4) and free (f)T4 levels were measured before
and after treatment. All groups showed significant improvement in HAM-D scores. TSH level significantly reduced and T4 level significantly increased in the reboxetine group, however TSH level significantly increased and T4 level significantly reduced in the sertraline group. Percent changes Selleckchem Lumacaftor of TSH (p=0.007) and T4 (p=0.001) were significantly different between the reboxetine and sertraline groups. In the sertraline group, baseline TSH levels were correlated with response to treatment as determined by the change in HAM-D scores (p=0.03, r=0.648). There was a significant association between the percent changes in TSH values and the reduction in HAM-D scores in the reboxetine group (p=0.03, r=-0.434). In the whole study group, female patients had lower values of basal T4 compared with men (P=0.043), however percent changes of T4 did not differ between genders.