Data of 38 pediatric patients (mean age 9 8 years, range 3-18

\n\nData of 38 pediatric patients (mean age 9.8 years, range 3-18 years) with HL were analyzed for the involvement of bone marrow. All patients underwent non-contrast F-18 FDG PET/CT study. BMB was done in 31 patients from the bilateral iliac crests. Scans were interpreted by two nuclear medicine physicians blinded to the details of BMB.\n\nOf the 31 patients who underwent BMB, 5 patients had lymphomatous involvement on BMB. PET/CT was positive in four of these five patients. In 26 patients negative on BMB, PET was negative in 23 patients and positive in 3 patients for BMI. The sensitivity and negative

predictive value of F-18 FDG PET/CT was 87.5 and 96 %, respectively, for BMI.\n\nF-18 FDG PET/CT MK-2206 clinical trial can predict BMB results with high accuracy. F-18 FDG PET/CT may be used at initial staging of pediatric Hodgkin’s lymphoma as it uncovers unsuspected BMI and BMB may be omitted in patients with PET-positive BMI.”
“Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of antimicrobial pretreatments [chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), Clearfil Protect Bond (CPB),

and potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser] on microleakage under metal orthodontic brackets. Materials and Methods: Sixty freshly-extracted human premolars were randomly assigned selleck kinase inhibitor to four equal groups: group 1, 37% phosphoric acid; group 2, 37% phosphoric acid + 2% CHX; group 3, 37% phosphoric acid + KTP laser; and group 4, CPB. The teeth were kept in distilled water for 24 h, and thereafter subjected to 500 thermal cycles. Then specimens were sealed with nail varnish, stained with 0.5% basic

fuchsin for 24 h, sectioned, and evaluated under a stereomicroscope. Microleakage was scored with regard to the adhesive-tooth interface and the bracket-adhesive interface at both incisal and gingival margins by the same person. Statistical analysis was accomplished by one-way selleck chemicals llc ANOVA and the Kruskal-Wallis test, with significance set at p = 0.05. Results: Microleakage was observed in all groups. No statistically significant difference was observed among all groups in terms of microleakage when bracket-adhesive and bracket-enamel interface along both gingival and incisal margins was evaluated (p > 0.05). Conclusions: The lowest microleakage scores were observed in the control group. CPB, KTP, and CHX groups did not show significant differences with the control group (p > 0.05), but the mean scores of the CHX group were higher than those of the other two experimental groups.”
“In 2009, we celebrated a centenary of the discovery of Chagas disease. Despite the great knowledge accumulated regarding the parasite and the disease itself, many epidemiological aspects of the disease rest to be clarified.

Because IL-1 beta is a key regulator of the brain cytokine networ

Because IL-1 beta is a key regulator of the brain cytokine network and P2X(7)R is an absolute requirement for IL-1 beta release, we further investigated whether response of brain cytokines to LPS in vivo was altered in P2X(7)R(-/-) mice compared to wild-type mice. IL-1 beta and TNF alpha mRNAs were less elevated in the brain of P2X(7)R(-/-) than in the brain

of wild-type mice in response to systemic LPS. These results show that P2X7R plays a key role in the brain cytokine response to immune stimuli, which certainly applies also to cytokine-dependent alterations in brain functions including sickness behavior. (C) 2007 Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“Background To investigate 576 patients undergoing coronary Selonsertib artery bypass grafting (CABG)

and to evaluate independent high risk factors of postoperative hypoxemia following CABG.\n\nMethods and Results The pre-, intra-, and post-operative materials in patients who had CABG performed oil them from March 2004 to March 2008 in our hospital were analyzed retrospectively. The relative factors of postoperative hypoxemia were tested through descriptive analysis and logistic regression, and the independent risk factors were obtained. Among the 576 patients investigated, 156 cases suffered from postoperative hypoxemia, and the incidence rate of postoperative hypoxemia was 27.08%. Through descriptive analysis and logistic regression, the independent risk factors of postoperative hypoxemia were AZD8931 purchase as follows: preoperative chronic pulmonary diseases (odds ratio (OR)=8.531, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.136-23.210), preoperative Fosbretabulin concentration acute myocardial infarction (OR=3.351, 95% CI 1.539-7.296), and preoperative diabetes (OR=3.108, 95% CI 1.439-6.713). Preoperative acute myocardial infarction (OR=2.091, 95% CI 1.520-4.416) is the independent risk factor during assisted ventilation after surgery, and preoperative chronic pulmonary diseases (OR=7.19, 95% CI 2.807-18.413),

pre-operative diabetes (OR=3.605, 95% CI 1.631-7.967), and preoperative acute myocardial infarction (OR= 3.604, 95% CI 1.518-8.543) are the 3 independent risk factors after decannulation following CABG.\n\nConclusions Preoperative chronic pulmonary diseases, preoperative acute myocardial infarction, and preoperative diabetes are 3 independent risk factors of postoperative hypoxermia following CABG. (Circ J 2008; 72: 1975-1980)”
“The development and function of Th17 cells are influenced in part by the cytokines TGF-P, IL-23 and IL-6, but the mechanisms that govern recruitment and activity of Th17 cells during initiation of autoirnmunity remain poorly defined. We show here that the development of autoreactive Th17 cells in secondary lymphoid organs in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis – an animal model of human myasthenia gravis – is modulated by IL-6-producing CD11b(+) cells via the CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2).

MEF2 activity is regulated by the association

with severa

MEF2 activity is regulated by the association

with several transcriptional co-factors and by post-translational modifications. In the present report, we provide evidence for a novel regulatory mechanism of MEF2C activity, which occurs at the onset of skeletal muscle differentiation and is based on Lys4 acetylation. This covalent modification JNJ-26481585 purchase results in the enhancement of MEF2C binding to DNA and chromatin. In particular, we report that the kinetic parameters of MEF2/DNA association change substantially upon induction of differentiation to give a more stable complex and that this effect is mediated by Lys4 acetylation. We also show that Lys4 acetylation plays a prominent role in the p300-dependent activation of MEF2C.”
“Objective:\n\nCriminal behavior in bipolar disorder may be related to substance use disorders, personality disorders, or other comorbidities potentially related to impulsivity. We investigated relationships among impulsivity, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) or borderline APR-246 molecular weight personality disorder symptoms, substance use disorder,

course of illness, and history of criminal behavior in bipolar disorder.\n\nMethods:\n\nA total of 112 subjects with bipolar disorder were recruited from the community. Diagnosis Selleckchem GSK2245840 was by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I and SCID-II); psychiatric symptom assessment by the Change version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS-C); severity

of Axis II symptoms by ASPD and borderline personality disorder SCID-II symptoms; and impulsivity by questionnaire and response inhibition measures.\n\nResults:\n\nA total of 29 subjects self-reported histories of criminal conviction. Compared to other subjects, those with convictions had more ASPD symptoms, less education, more substance use disorder, more suicide attempt history, and a more recurrent course with propensity toward mania. They had increased impulsivity as reflected by impaired response inhibition, but did not differ in questionnaire-measured impulsivity. On logit analysis, impaired response inhibition and ASPD symptoms, but not substance use disorder, were significantly associated with criminal history.

We find, however, contradictory lines of evidence regarding the s

We find, however, contradictory lines of evidence regarding the status of O. angel. Within O. guacamayo, we found a genetically divergent population that, we argue, represents a new species. We consider that O. bufoniformis represents a species complex that deserves

further study. We highlight the importance HSP990 mouse of incorporating morphological data when delimiting species, especially for lineages that have a recent origin and have not achieved reciprocal monophyly in molecular phylogenies. Finally, the most divergent morphological traits among Osornophryne species are associated with locomotion (finger, toes and limbs) and feeding (head), suggesting an association between morphology and the ecological habits of the species. (c) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background. To establish a new experimental model of human hepatocellular carcinoma by orthotopic implantation of tumoral cells 3-MA supplier with its subsequent removal, to generate and modulate circulating tumoral cells.\n\nMaterials and methods. Three human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2, PLC/PRF, and Mahlavu) were orthotopically implanted under the Glisson’s capsule of the left lateral lobe of the liver in a total of 56 non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mice. Tumor removal was performed 30 d after injection, and a laparotomy without tumor removal was done in control mice. Generation of circulating cells was monitored by flow cytometry

using fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated anti-HIA antibody.\n\nResults. In 26 mice implanted with Mahlavu cells, 20 developed a unique tumor allowing a resection (77%), which selleck inhibitor was technically feasible in 80% of cases. The overall perioperative mortality

was 30% (3/10) after resection; no mortality was observed in the control group. The circulating tumoral cells decreased dramatically after resection of the tumor as compared with control mice.\n\nConclusion. This new model is feasible and may be an interesting useful tool to study the hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic process and is consistent with the human clinical practice. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“This review attempts to explain how dietary mineral intake may affect the immune system, with particular reference to gastrointestinal nematode infestations of livestock, and considers its significance for other gut infections as well as for other species. Of the 56 minerals found in mammalian tissues, 16 are currently considered to be essential, and a further 13 probably essential, for cell and tissue function. To date, eight of these have been shown to affect the function of the mammalian immune system directly. Nine others have roles in physiological pathways such as neurological or endocrine function, or protein or carbohydrate metabolism, which in turn regulate the immune system. The remainder may in the future be shown to have immunologically specific roles.

For the continuous grazing system, sheep grazed the same plots ea

For the continuous grazing system, sheep grazed the same plots each year, and for the alternating system, grazing and hay making were

alternated annually between two adjacent plots. In July, August, and September 2009 and 2010, feed intake and live weight of sheep were EPZ5676 determined. The GS did not affect dOM (P=0.101), OMI (P=0.381), and LWG of sheep (P=0.701). Across both GS LWG decreased from 98 g . d(-1) for GI1 to 62 g . d(-1) for GI6 (P smaller than 0.001; R-2=0.42). There were no interactions between GS and GI for all measured parameters (P bigger than = 0.061), indicating that alternating grazing did not compensate for negative effects of heavy grazing even after 4 yr of grassland use. In summary, our study showed that irrespective of GI, alternating grassland use does not improve dOM, OMI, and hence, LWG of sheep. However, it Wnt/beta-catenin inhibitor might enhance revenues and ecological sustainability in the long term when compared to the common practice of continuous grazing at very high stocking rates.”
“Assortative mating, an ubiquitous form of nonrandom mating, strongly impacts Darwinian fitness and can drive biological diversification. Despite its ecological and evolutionary importance, the behavioural processes underlying assortative mating are often unknown, and in particular, mechanisms not involving mate choice

have been largely ignored so far. Here, we propose that assortative mating can arise from prudent habitat choice’, a general mechanism that acts under natural selection, and that it can occur despite a complete mixing of phenotypes. We show that in the

cichlid Eretmodus cyanostictus size-assortative mating ensues, because individuals of weaker competitive ability NU7441 ignore high-quality but strongly competed habitat patches. Previous studies showed that in E.cyanostictus, size-based mate preferences are absent. By field and laboratory experiments, here we showed that (i) habitat quality and body size are correlated in this species; (ii) territories with more stone cover are preferred by both sexes in the absence of competition; and (iii) smaller fish prudently occupy vacant territories of worse quality than do larger fish. Prudent habitat choice is likely to be a widespread mechanism of assortative mating, as both preferences for and dominance-based access to high-quality habitats are generic phenomena in animals.”
“INTRODUCTION: Activation of renal sympathetic nerves is associated with the development of hypertension. Catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation with radiofrequency energy ablation is a new promising treatment option for resistant hypertension. We here report the first Danish experiences and results with this technique.\n\nMATERIAL AND METHODS: Nine patients with resistant hypertension and a day-time 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) of 152/89 mmHg +/- 10/10 (standard deviation) mmHg despite treatment with 5.4 +/- 1.

In plants, however, there is only limited knowledge of the functi

In plants, however, there is only limited knowledge of the functions of endogenous trehalose and its hydrolytic enzyme trehalase. Therefore, we isolated a T-DNA knockout plant, Attre1, with impaired trehalase activity. The Attre1 mutant contained elevated levels of endogenous trehalose, and exhibited phenotypic abnormalities in both

vegetative and reproductive organ development, including growth retardation, abnormal leaf and flower morphologies, and impaired pollen production. Interestingly, a disruption of AtTRE1 resulted in alterations in trehalose synthesis and expression of hexokinase genes. The presented results indicate that Arabidopsis contains a trehalose-signaling network which might NCT-501 manufacturer be functionally coupled to a hexokinase-dependent signaling pathway, consequently controlling plant metabolism and development.”
“BACKGROUND: Previous work has demonstrated that piperonyl butoxide selleck (PBO) not only inhibits microsomal oxidases but also resistance-associated esterases. The ability to inhibit both major metabolic resistance enzymes makes it an ideal synergist to enhance xenobiotics but negates the ability to differentiate which enzyme group is responsible for conferring resistance.\n\nRESULTS: This study examines an analogue that retains the ability to inhibit esterases but is restricted in its ability to act on microsomal oxidases, thus allowing an informed decision

on resistance enzymes to be made when used in conjunction with the parent molecule.\n\nCONCLUSION: Using examples of resistant insects with well-characterised resistance mechanisms, a combination of PBO and analogue allows identification

of the metabolic mechanism responsible for conferring resistance. The relative potency of PBO as both an esterase inhibitor and an oxidase inhibitor is also discussed. (C) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Earthworm (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) species are used widely in eco-toxicological tests especially with contaminated soils. Selonsertib ic50 These long-term tests are reliable, but a high sample size is needed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can produce fast, robust, sensitive, and longitudinal morphological results using a small sample size. Performing longitudinal in vivo examinations of earthworms using MRI requires the need for anesthetics to completely avoid earthworm’s moving. Our goal was to develop a simple and non-invasive method to anesthetize earthworms for in vivo longitudinal imaging studies. We investigated a number of different anesthesia methods and found that propan-2-ol and its vapor was optimal. We used a commercial sequential nanoScan (R) PET/MRI system (Mediso Ltd, Hungary, Budapest) to explore feasibility of MR imaging in immobilized earthworms. It was possible to visualize via micro MRI the brain, gastrointestinal tract, seminal vesicles, calciferous gland (Morren gland), and main blood vessels of the circulatory system.

Recently, missense variants in the angiogenin gene (ANG), an angi

Recently, missense variants in the angiogenin gene (ANG), an angiogenic factor expressed in ventral horn motor neurons that is up-regulated by hypoxia, have been found in ALS patients

of Irish/Scottish, North American, Italian, French and Dutch descent. To investigate the role of ANG in the German population, we screened for mutations by sequencing the entire coding region of the ANG gene in a large sample of 581 German ALS cases and 616 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. We identified two heterozygous missense variants, F(-13)L Quisinostat price and K54E, in two German sporadic ALS cases but not in controls. Both missense variants are novel and have not been previously found in ALS cases. Our results suggest that missense variants in the ANG gene play a role in ALS in the German population and provide further evidence

to support the hypothesis that angiogenic factors up-regulated by hypoxia are involved in the pathophysiology of ALS.”
“3,3′,4,4′,5′-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) is a carcinogenic environmental pollutant and its toxicity is mediated through binding with aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Earlier, we found that PCB126 treated F344 rats had 110-400 times higher PCB126 concentration in the liver than in the fat. Protein binding was suspected to be a major factor for the high liver concentration of PCB126 despite its high lipophilicity. In this research, we AZD1208 conducted a combined pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic find protocol study in male F344 rats. In addition to blood and tissue pharmacokinetics, we use the development of hepatic preneoplastic foci (glutathione-S-transferase placental form [GSTP]) as a pharmacodynamic endpoint. Experimental data were utilized for building a physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model. PBPK/PD modeling was consistent with the experimental PK and PD data. Salient features of this model include: (1) bindings between PCB126 and hepatic proteins, particularly the multidrug resistance-associated protein (Mrp2), a protein transporter; (2) Mrp2-mediated excretion;

and (3) a relationship between area under the curve of PCB126 in the livers and % volume of GSTP foci. Mrp2 involvement in PCB126 pharmacokinetics is supported by computational chemistry calculation using a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship model of Mrp2 developed by S. Hirono et al. (2005, Pharm. Res. 22, 260-269). This work, for the first time, provided a plausible role of a versatile hepatic transporter for drugs, Mrp2, in the disposition of an important environmental pollutant, PCB126.”
“With the advent of therapeutic radiation treatment machines with photon end point energies of several MeV, a new channel is available to transfer the photon energy to biological material, namely, pair production. This process has a photon threshold energy of 1.02 MeV.

We included studies published as abstracts only along with studie

We included studies published as abstracts only along with studies published as full-textmanuscripts\n\nData collection and analysis\n\nTwo review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Data were checked for accuracy.\n\nMain 4EGI-1 chemical structure results\n\nFor this update,

12 trials (1557 women and 1661 infants) were included. Dexamethasone was associated with a reduced risk of intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) compared with betamethasone (risk ratio (RR) 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21 to 0.92; four trials, 549 infants). No statistically significant differences were seen for other primary outcomes: respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) selleck chemicals llc (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.27; five trials, 753 infants) and perinatal death (neonatal death RR 1.41, 95% CI 0.54 to 3.67; four trials, 596 infants). Similarly, very few differences were seen for secondary outcomes such as rate of admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) although in one trial, those infants exposed to dexamethasone, compared with betamethasone, had a significantly shorter length of NICU admission (mean difference (MD) -0.91 days, 95% CI -1.77 to -0.05;

70 infants). Results for biophysical parameters were inconsistent, but mostly no clinically important differences were seen.\n\nCompared with intramuscular dexamethasone, oral dexamethasone significantly increased the incidence of neonatal sepsis (RR 8.48, 95% CI 1.11 to 64.93) in one trial of 183 infants. No statistically significant differences were seen for other outcomes reported.\n\nApart from a reduced maternal postpartum length of stay for women who received betamethasone at 12-hourly intervals compared to 24-hourly intervals in one trial (MD -0.73 days, 95% CI -1.28 to -0.18; 215 women), no differences

in maternal or neonatal outcomes were seen between the different betamethasone dosing intervals PFTα assessed. Similarly, no significant differences in outcomes were seen when betamethasone acetate and phosphate was compared with betamethasone phosphate in one trial.\n\nAuthors’ conclusions\n\nIt remains unclear whether one corticosteroid (or one particular regimen) has advantages over another.\n\nDexamethasone may have some benefits compared with betamethasone such as less IVH, and a shorter length of stay in the NICU. The intramuscular route may have advantages over the oral route for dexamethasone, as identified in one small trial. Apart from the suggestion that 12-hour dosing may be as effective as 24-hour dosing of betamethasone based on one small trial, few other conclusions about optimal antenatal corticosteroid regimens were able to be made. No long-term results were available except for a small subgroup of 18 month old children in one trial. Trials comparing the commonly used corticosteroids are most urgently needed, as are trials of dosages and other variations in treatment regimens.

48 samples of saliva were collected from 16 healthy subjects over

48 samples of saliva were collected from 16 healthy subjects over 3 days. Each sample was split in two and the first half treated with an oral rinse, while the second was left untreated

as a control sample. Nocodazole molecular weight The 96 H-1 NMR metabolomic profiles obtained in the dataset are affected by three factors, namely 16 subjects, 3 sampling days and 2 treatments. These three factors contribute to the total variation in the dataset. When analysing datasets from saliva using traditional methods such as PCA (principal component analysis), the overall variance is dominated by subjects’ contributions, and we cannot see trends that would highlight the effect of specific factors such as oral rinse. In order to identify these trends, we used methods such as MSCA ( multilevel simultaneous

component analysis) and ASCA (ANOVA simultaneous component analysis), that provide variance splits according to the experimental factors, so that we could look at the particular effect of treatment on saliva. The analysis of the treatment effect was enhanced, as it was isolated from the overall variance and assessed without confounding factors.”
“The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of the existing literature on the incidence of hypertrophic scarring and the psychosocial impact of burn scars. In a comprehensive literature review, the authors identified this website 48 articles published since 1965 and written in English which

reported the incidence and risk factors for hypertrophic scarring or assessed outcomes related to scarring. Most studies had important methodological limitations limiting the generalizability of the findings. In particular, the absence of standardized valid measures of scarring and other outcome variables was a major barrier to drawing strong conclusions. Among studies on hypertrophic scarring, the prevalence rate varied between 32 and 72%. Identified risk factors included dark skin, female gender, young age, burn site on neck and upper limb, multiple surgical procedures, meshed skin BVD-523 purchase graph, time to healing, and burn severity. With regard to psychosocial outcomes, two studies compared pediatric burn survivors with a nonburn comparison group on a body image measure; neither study found differences between groups. Across studies, burn severity and location had a modest relationship with psychosocial outcome variables. Psychosocial variables such as social comfort and perceived stigmatization were more highly associated with body image than burn characteristics. To advance our knowledge of the epidemiology of scars and the burden of scars, future studies need to implement more rigorous methodologies. In particular, standardized valid measures of scarring and other outcomes should be developed. This process could be facilitated by an international collaboration among burn centers.

3%) occurred

3%) occurred Amino acid transport inhibitor in the HAART group vs. 25 (16.1%) in the PMTCT group (P < 0.001). The rate of LBW was 22.3% in the HAART group and 12.4% in the PMTCT group (P=0.02). In multivariable analysis (n=309), after adjustment on maternal CD4 cell count, WHO stage, age and maternal BMI, HAART initiated before pregnancy [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-7.51] and during pregnancy (adjusted OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.15-4.65) and maternal BMI at delivery (adjusted OR 2.43,

95% CI 1.20-4.91) were associated with LBW.\n\nConclusion: HAART in pregnant African women with advanced HIV disease substantially reduced mother-to-child transmission, but was associated with LBW. (C) 2008 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Two new pimarane-type diterpenes, eutypellones A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the endophytic fungus Entypella sp. BCC 13199. Cytotoxic activities of the pimaranes 1-5, isolated from this fungus, were evaluated.”
“The lipase from wheat germ was used for the kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols. It has the opposite enantioselectivity against the Kazlauskas rule and acts as an anti-Kazlauskas catalyst. The effect of initial water activity, organic

solvent, acyl donor and temperature were investigated. Wheat germ lipase had a high activity and enantioselectivity only in n-hexane with a high initial water activity (alpha(w) = 0.97), especially with 1-phenylethanol (C 32%, E > 200). Its performance changed little with the chain length of acyl donor MDV3100 and temperature.”
“The pituitary gland is a highly mitotically active tissue after birth. Various cell types are known to undergo proliferation in the anterior pituitary. However, little is

ICG-001 ic50 known about the mechanisms regulating mitotic activity in this tissue. When searching for genes specifically expressed in the pituitary gland among those that we previously screened in Drosophila, we found epithelial cell-transforming gene 2 (Ect2). Ect2 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho GTPases, which is known to play an essential role in cytokinesis. Although there have been many cellular studies regarding the function of Ect2, the temporal and spatial expression patterns of Ect2 in vivo have not been determined. In the present study, we examined the postnatal developmental expression of Ect2 in the mouse pituitary. Enhanced Ect2 expression was detected in the mouse pituitary gland during the first 3 weeks after birth, which coincided well with the period of rapid pituitary expansion associated with increased growth rate. Immunostaining analysis showed that Ect2-expressing cells were distributed in the anterior and intermediate lobes, but not the posterior lobe, of the pituitary. These Ect2-expressing cells frequently incorporated the thymidine analogue, EdU (5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine), indicating that these cells were mitotically active.