However, empirical estimates of how fast this process occurs

However, empirical estimates of how fast this process occurs β-Nicotinamide are limited. Here we use nucleotide sequences of male-killing Wolbachia bacteria and co-inherited mitochondria to address this issue in the island butterfly Hypolimnas bolina. We show that infected specimens scattered

throughout the species range harbour the same Wolbachia and mitochondrial DNA as inferred from 6337 bp of the bacterial genome and 2985 bp of the mitochondrial genome, suggesting this strain of Wolbachia has spread across the South Pacific Islands at most 3000 years ago, and probably much more recently.”
“We have compared the results at a mean follow-up of 13 years (11 to 14) of two groups of supination-external rotation type-4 fractures of the ankle, in one of which there was a fracture of the medial malleolus and in the other the medial deltoid ligament had been partially or completely ruptured.\n\nOf 66 patients treated operatively between 1993 and 1997, 36 were available for follow-up. Arthroscopy had been performed in all patients pre-operatively to assess the extent of the intra-articular lesions. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hind-foot score was used

for clinical evaluation and showed a significant difference in both the total and the functional scores (p < 0.05), but not in those for pain or alignment, in favour of the group with a damaged deltoid ligament (p < 0.05). The only significant difference between the groups on the short-form 36 quality-of-life score was for bodily pain, again in favour of the group with a damaged deltoid ligament. There was no significant GDC-0973 in vitro difference between the groups in the subjective visual analogue scores or in the modified Kannus radiological score.\n\nArthroscopically, there was a significant difference with an increased risk of loose bodies in the group with an intact deltoid ligament (p < 0.005), although there was no significant increased risk of deep cartilage lesions in the

two groups.\n\nAt a mean follow-up of 13 years after operative treatment Selleckchem Ion Channel Ligand Library of a supination-external rotation type-4 ankle fracture patients with partial or complete rupture of the medial deltoid ligament tended to have a better result than those with a medial malleolar fracture.”
“Background:Severe hypocalcennia sometimes develops during denosumab treatment for bone metastases from cancer and is, therefore, an important issue. However, limited information is available on the risk factors for hypocalcemia and the appropriate interval for monitoring serum calcium concentration. Objective: The present study aimed to identify the risk factors for grade bigger than = 2 hypocalcennia and to investigate the time course of serum calcium concentrations in patients receiving denosumab for bone metastases from cancer. Method: The medical records of 66 cancer patients treated with denosumab between April 2012 and August 2013 were retrospectively reviewed.

RESULTS: Twelve months postoperatively, 20 (96%) of the 21 ey

\n\nRESULTS: Twelve months postoperatively, 20 (96%) of the 21 eyes studied were within +/- 0.50 diopter (D) of the intended refractive outcome and 17 (81%) were within +/- 0.25 D. One eye

had a 0.325 D change in mean refractive spherical equivalent (MRSE). The change in MRSE in the other 20 eyes was less than 0.250 D between 1 month after lock-in and the 3-, 6-, and 12-month postoperative visits.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: The light-adjustable IOL reduced postoperative spherical and cylindrical errors of up to 2.00 D. Postoperative refractive errors were successfully corrected, and there was a significant improvement in UDVA with concomitant maintenance of CDVA. The achieved refractive ROCK inhibitor change was stable after the adjustment and lock-in procedures.”
“A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. Lack of evidence selleck compound exists regarding the optimal timing for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery after non-ST myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). While some authors address the importance of the timing

of surgery alone, others take into account the extent of myocardial damage. The question addressed was whether early or late CABG surgery improves hospital mortality and cardiovascular events after NSTEMI in stable patients. Using a designated search strategy, 459 articles were found, of which seven represented the best available evidence. All of these studies were level 3 (retrospective cohort studies). Studies could be divided into those which assessed CABG outcome based on preoperative cardiac troponin I (cTnI) level as a measure of the extent of myocardial damage and those which considered find more only the timing after myocardial infarction. Outcome measures included short-term survival, hospital mortality, length of hospital stay and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). The biggest retrospective study analysing postoperative

outcomes based on the timing of surgery after NSTEMI concluded that operative mortality is higher when surgery is performed within 6 h of the event. After 6 h, mortality is similar at any timepoint after 6h of NSTEMI. While other smaller studies agree that there are fewer postoperative complications when surgery is performed after 48 h of the event, no consensus is found regarding mortality between early (less than 48 h) and late CABG surgery. Taking into account preoperative cTnI values, CABG has a higher incidence of MACEs and hospital mortality in patients with cTnI > 0.15 ng/ml. When surgery is performed within 24 h of symptoms, preoperative cTnI > 0.72 ng/ml is associated with worse outcomes.

Little information is available on the usefulness of AVOX in the

Little information is available on the usefulness of AVOX in the forensic sample, and the previous study investigated only

six samples. Therefore, in this study, we confirmed the usefulness of the AVOX through a comparison of its results with data previously obtained using the double wavelength spectrophotometric method in autopsies. Regression analysis was performed between CO-Hb levels measured by the AVOX and those measured Danusertib inhibitor by the conventional double wavelength spectrophotometric method in postmortem blood samples: a significant correlation was observed. This study suggests the usefulness of the AVOX to analyze postmortem blood, and the AVOX is suitable for routine forensic analysis and can be applied at the crime scene.”
“In the Japanese main islands, two brook damselfly species are sympatrically distributed. One is highly endangered damselfly, Copera tokyoensis, Asahina, 1948, and the other is a congeneric common species, C. annulata (Selys, 1863). Mitochondrial gene genealogy reconstructed by the maximum likelihood method showed that they are not reciprocally monophyletic. These two congeneric species might have experienced mitochondrial

introgressions possibly through hybridizations. The effect BMS-777607 chemical structure of hybridization against endangered species is generally poorly understood. Taxonomic uncertainty might also explain this situation because extremely dispersed pattern of the haplotype network could not be appeared by once or twice hybridization. Three closely located populations of C. tokyoensis in the Kanto district showed significant population differentiation. It might suggest the learn more low dispersal tendency of this endangered species.”
“[Purpose] Balance and gait ability determine to a large degree the level of independence of daily living which is an important goal of rehabilitation. This study was conducted in order to examine the effectiveness of an ankle proprioceptive control program on ankle muscle strength, balance, and gait of chronic stroke patients. [Methods] Thirteen chronic stroke patients more than six months post-stroke were recruited. All subjects received ankle proprioceptive

control training for 30 minutes per session, two days per week, over a period of six weeks. Outcome measures were ankle strength (BTE-Primus), the Timed Up and Go test (TUG), and spatiotemporal parameters measured by a GAITRite instrument. [Results] Significant improvements in ankle dorsiflexor strength, TUG, gait speed and cadence, step length, and stride length were observed on the paretic side. [Conclusion] The results of this study provide evidence in support of incorporation of an ankle proprioceptive control program for effective improvement of both balance and gait ability of chronic stroke patients. The findings of this study suggest the feasibility and suitability of an ankle proprioceptive control program for chronic stroke patients.

The water binding capacity

The water binding capacity selleck chemicals llc (WBC) (P smaller than 0.01), swelling capacity (P smaller than 0.01) of gestation diets, the concentration of total short chain fatty acids (P smaller than 0.05) after in vitro fermentation of gestation diets increased linearly with increasing inclusion amounts of KF. During the second reproductive cycle, increasing dietary KF linearly increased plasma concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) 4h postprandial (P smaller than 0.05) and glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) 2h post-prandial (P smaller than 0.05), but decreased the plasma concentration of cortisol (linearly, P smaller than 0.05) 1 h postprandial. In addition, there was

a linear decrease of the non-feeding oral behavior of gestating sows (P smaller than 0.01) when dietary KF increased. There were linear increases in lactation feed intake of sows during entire lactation period (P smaller than 0.01) with increasing amounts of KF in the gestation find more diet. In addition, the number of piglets weaned (linearly, P smaller than 0.01; quadratic, P = 0.01), average piglet weights and litter weights on day 21 of lactation (linearly, P smaller than 0.01) increased with increasing inclusion amounts of KF. In conclusion, inclusion of dietary fiber with great WBC, swelling

capacity and fermentation capacity in the gestation diet was beneficial for enhancing postprandial satiety in pregnant sows, increasing lactation feed intake and improved number of piglets weaned per litter through greater pre-weaning survival. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.”
“Natural graphite flakes were intercalated with strong oxidizing agents and were converted into thermally expanded graphite (TEG) through thermal exfoliation. Thermally expanded graphite was delaminated and transformed into graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) by using ultrasonic irradiation. GNP integrated polyaniline (PANi) nanocomposites were synthesized via in-situ polymerization of aniline monomers in the presence of GNP. The structure and morphology of composite was evidenced by scanning electron microscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy.

Sonidegib cost TEM micrographs revealed that GNP consists of 20-25 graphene layers and PANi was uniformly coated on GNP. From Raman analysis it was showed significant interactions between GNP and polyaniline. Electrical conductivity was measured by using 4-point probe device, enhanced conductivity was obtained for composite. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective. To investigate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in muscle biopsy specimens and serum from patients with polymyositis and patients with dermatomyositis compared with that in healthy control subjects.\n\nMethods. Muscle biopsy specimens from 33 patients with polymyositis or dermatomyositis and 15 healthy control subjects and serum samples from 56 patients and 56 healthy control subjects were analyzed.


“The ciliate Euplotes encysticus Yonezawa, 1985 was insuff


“The ciliate Euplotes encysticus Yonezawa, 1985 was insufficiently described so far regarding its living morphology, infraciliature and silverline system. Recently, a China population was isolated from brackish water (salinity 6 parts per thousand) near a coastal sandy beach (114 degrees 32′E 22 degrees 43′N) of the Daya Bay, South China Sea and subsequent investigations were performed on it in detail. Based on data available, the morphology of this species was summarized and a new diagnosis is given which is characterized by: medium-sized body with consistently 9 frontoventral, 2 caudal and 2 left marginal cirri; 30-40

adoral membranelles; 7 dorsal kineties; dorsal silverline system consisting of complex type with irregular network; capable of encystment. Both the

morphology and SSr see more RNA gene sequence show, with high support, a close relationship of E. encysticus and Euplotes muscorum.”
“Background and Aims Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are rapidly increasing in popularity. Two randomized controlled trials have suggested that e-cigarettes can aid smoking cessation, but there are many factors that could influence their real-world effectiveness. This study aimed to assess, using an established methodology, the effectiveness of e-cigarettes when used to aid smoking cessation compared with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) bought over-the-counter and with unaided quitting in the general population. Design and Setting A large www.selleckchem.com/ferroptosis.html cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of the English ARN-509 supplier population. Participants The study included 5863 adults who had smoked within the previous 12 months and made at least one quit attempt during that period with either an e-cigarette only (n = 464), NRT bought over-the-counter only (n = 1922)

or no aid in their most recent quit attempt (n = 3477). Measurements The primary outcome was self-reported abstinence up to the time of the survey, adjusted for key potential confounders including nicotine dependence. Findings E-cigarette users were more likely to report abstinence than either those who used NRT bought over-the-counter [odds ratio (OR) = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.70-2.93, 20.0 versus 10.1%] or no aid (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.08-1.76, 20.0 versus 15.4%). The adjusted odds of non-smoking in users of e-cigarettes were 1.63 (95% CI = 1.17-2.27) times higher compared with users of NRT bought over-the-counter and 1.61 (95% CI = 1.19-2.18) times higher compared with those using no aid. Conclusions Among smokers who have attempted to stop without professional support, those who use e-cigarettes are more likely to report continued abstinence than those who used a licensed NRT product bought over-the-counter or no aid to cessation. This difference persists after adjusting for a range of smoker characteristics such as nicotine dependence.


“beta-Keto sulfones and beta-nitrile sulfones were used as


“beta-Keto sulfones and beta-nitrile sulfones were used as building blocks for 1,2,3-triazole synthesis in the Dimroth cyclization. It was shown, that sulfone reagents undergo base-catalyzed cyclization under mild conditions (at room temperature) to give 1,2,3-triazoles in moderate to excellent yields. This fact has confirmed the high nucleophilicity of sulfonylmethylenic Selleckchem Adavosertib compounds and allows new synthetic applications.”
“Background: The aim of the study was to determine how tidal volumes may affect the lung and haemodynamics during mechanical ventilation.

Materials and Methods: With the approval of the Ethics Committee, the study included a total of 24 healthy piglets, average weight 30 kg (range 28-33 kg). The animals https://www.selleckchem.com/products/thz1.html were ventilated for 90 minutes under general anaesthesia with two different tidal volume strategies and allocated into three groups. Group A, animals were healthy controls, Group B, animals comprised 8 piglets with an abdominal aortic aneurysm and ventilated with a low tidal volume strategy (VT(exp) 7ml/kg).

Group C comprised 8 animals seven days after kidney transplantation, ventilated with a high tidal volume strategy (VT(exp) 12ml/kg). Changes in lung mechanics and hemodynamics were assessed at 30th and 90th minutes. Lung tissue samples were examined histologically. Results: Protective ventilation in Group A and B did not confer any haemodynamic and lung mechanic differences. Significant differences were only found in Group C at 90 minutes for increased preload of both heart ventricles (CVP; t-test 4.07, p<0.01 and PAoP; t-test 8.43, p<0.01), pulmonary vascular resistance (t-test 3.11, p<0.05), and decreased expiratory tidal volume (t-test 6.07, p<0.01), dynamic lung compliance (t-test 3.83, p<0.01) and cardiac output (t-test 2.07, p<0.01).

Diffuse Navitoclax alveolar damage was detected histologically. Conclusion: Mechanical ventilation at high tidal volumes reaching 12 ml/kg caused functional changes in the lungs, diffuse alveolar damage and reduction of cardiac output within 90 minutes.”
“Pretransplant risk assessment of graft failure is important for donor selection and choice of immunosuppressive treatment. We examined the relation between kidney graft failure and presence of IgG donor specific HLA antibodies (DSA) or C1q-fixing DSA, detected by single antigen bead array (SAB) in pretransplant sera from 837 transplantations. IgG-DSA were found in 290 (35%) sera, whereas only 30 (4%) sera had C1q-fixing DSA. Patients with both class-I plus -II DSA had a 10 yr graft survival of 30% versus 72% in patients without HLA antibodies (p < 0.001). No significant difference was observed in graft survival between patients with or without C1q-fixing DSA.

However, when a phosphorescent crystal is fractured impulsively b

However, when a phosphorescent crystal is fractured impulsively by dropping a load on it, then initially the ML intensity increases linearly with time, attains a maximum value I-m at a particular time

t(m) and later on it decreases initially at a fast rate and then at a slow rate. For low impact velocity the value of t(m) is constant, however, for www.selleckchem.com/products/jib-04.html higher impact velocity t(m) decreases logarithmally with the increasing impact velocity. Whereas the peak ML intensity I-m increases linearly with the impact velocity, the total ML intensity I-T, initially increases linearly with the impact velocity and then it tends to attain a saturation value for-higher values of the impact velocity. The value of t(m) increases logarithmally with the thickness of crystals, I-m increases linearly with the area of cross-section of crystals and I-T increases

linearly with the volume of crystals. Generally, the ML of non-irradiated crystals decreases with increasing temperature of crystals. Depending on the prevailing conditions the ML spectra consist of either gas discharge spectra or solid state luminescence spectra or combination of the both. On the basis of the rate of generation of cracks and the rate of creation of new surface area of crystals, expressions are derived for the ML intensity and they are found to explain satisfactorily the temporal, spectral, thermal, crystal-size, impact velocity, surface area, and other characteristics of ML The present investigation may be useful in designing of damage sensors, fracture sensors, JQEZ5 ic50 ML-based safety management monitoring system, fuse-system for army warheads, milling machine, etc. The present study may be helpful in understanding the processes involved in earthquakes, earthquake lights and mine-failure as they basically involve fracture of solids. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives: Dinaciclib Cell Cycle inhibitor To assess

the variability in the number of cigarettes smoked per person per day in Spain according to the information source (health surveys versus legal sales).\n\nMethods: We compared cigarette consumption per person per day (population aged >= 16 years) obtained from the national health surveys in Spain and the official data on legal tobacco sales between 1993 and 2009.\n\nResults: Cigarette consumption per person per day decreased between 1993 and 2009. Over the entire period, the number of cigarettes smoked per person per day according to legal sales exceeded that reported by national health surveys (up to 46.9%).\n\nConclusion: The difference in data on the number of cigarettes smoked between national health surveys and legal sales has increased in the last few years in Spain. (C) 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana, S.L. All rights reserved.”
“Four hundred shabbout fries (Tor grypus L. 1758), with average initial weight of 0.95+/-0.02 g and total average length of 4.10+/-0.

A549 cell pretreatment with WRW4, an antagonist of the transmembr

A549 cell pretreatment with WRW4, an antagonist of the transmembrane formyl peptide receptor-like 1 protein attenuated LL-37′s ability to increase cell stiffness. The LL-37-mediated increase in cell stiffness was accompanied by a decrease in permeability and P. aeruginosa uptake by a confluent monolayer of polarized normal human bronchial epithelial cells. These results suggested that the antibacterial effect of LL-37 involves an LL-37-dependent increase in cell stiffness

that prevents epithelial invasion by bacteria. The 5-Fluoracil Journal of Immunology, 2011, 187: 6402-6409.”
“Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by a gradual loss of motoneurons. The majority of ALS cases are associated with a sporadic form whose etiology is unknown. Several pieces of evidence favor autoimmunity as a potential contributor to sporadic ALS pathology. To gain understanding concerning possible antigens interacting with IgGs from sporadic ALS patients (ALS-IgGs), we studied immunoreactivity against neuromuscular junction (NMJ), spinal cord and cerebellum of mice with and without the Ca(V)2.1 pore-forming subunit Z-IETD-FMK mw of the P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium (Ca(2+)) channel. ALS-IgGs showed a strong reactivity against

NMJs of wild-type diaphragms. ALS-IgGs also increased muscle miniature end-plate potential frequency, suggesting a functional role for ALS-IgGs on synaptic signaling. In support, in mice lacking the Ca(V)2.1 subunit ALS-IgGs showed significantly reduced NMJ immunoreactivity and did not alter spontaneous acetylcholine release. This difference in reactivity was absent when comparing N-type Ca(2+) channel wild-type or null mice. These results are particularly relevant because motoneurons are known to be early pathogenic targets in ALS. Our findings add further evidence supporting autoimmunity as one of the possible mechanisms contributing to ALS pathology. They also suggest that serum autoantibodies in a subset of ALS patients would EPZ004777 cost interact with NMJ proteins down-regulated when P/Q-type

channels are absent.”
“Recycling of poly(ethyleneterephthalate) waste was achieved through glycolysis using diethyleneglycol (DEG) and poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG 400), which yielded different fractions that exhibited hydroxyl numbers of 174.41 and 54.86 mg of KOH/g, respectively, whereas GPC profiles revealed bimodality in both cases corresponding to Mn values equivalent to 534 and 1648. The products of glycolysis from both cases were individually incorporated as modifiers during the synthesis of urea-formaldehyde resins from both the basic as well as acidic stages, respectively. It was found that the free formaldehyde level was remarkably decreased for the modified resins while the gel time was slightly affected indicating some activation of the resins.

Equilibrium aqueous-phase concentrations of 17 PAHs leaching from

Equilibrium aqueous-phase concentrations of 17 PAHs leaching from the aquifer material containing the ACT were measured from consecutive equilibration steps at increasing temperatures of between 25 and 100 degrees C using accelerated solvent extraction. The results showed 2-to

R788 supplier 5,000-fold lower concentrations than those from BCT, indicating dramatic changes of dissolution behavior of PAHs from coal tar after the five-year aging period. Predictions based on Raoult’s law with the subcooled liquid solubilities substantially overestimated the equilibrium aqueous-phase concentrations of the PAHs from ACT, whereas the estimations were reasonable if the solid solubilities were employed instead. The enthalpies of phase transfer from ACT to water were determined based on the van’t Hoff equation. The resulting values agreed with the dissolution enthalpies of pure solid rather than subcooled liquid PAHs.”
“Objectives: To evaluate the effect of high and low glycaemic index drinks on children’s sleep pattern.\n\nMethods: Eight children underwent 3 nights of full polysomnography study, one familiarization and two test nights consecutively. On the test nights, 1 hour before bedtime, the children had a milk drink of either low or high Gl in a random order. The glycaemic loads (GL) were 7.4 and 52.8 for low and high Gl drink respectively.\n\nResults:

The mean of total arousal index in the first half of night after the high Gl was greater than that of low Gl

selleck chemicals llc drink. (12.9 +/- 4.6 vs. 9.9 +/- 2.2, P=0.03). NREM arousal index in the first half of night after the high Gl was also higher than that of low GI drink. (12.7 +/- 4.8 vs. 9.6 +/- 2.3, P=0.05). Other sleep parameters did not show any significant difference in low GI and high GI diets.\n\nConclusion: IPI-145 NREM and total arousal indices were higher in those who consumed high GI drinks compared with low GI, one hour before sleep. It seems that the high quantity consumption of carbohydrates close to the bedtime is accompanied by frequent arousals and may affect the sleep quality.”
“Eukaryotic proteasome assembly is assisted by multiple dedicated chaperones. In yeast, formation of the heteroheptameric ring composed of alpha 1-alpha 7 subunits is promoted by the heterodimeric chaperone Pba3-Pba4. Here we reveal that in the absence of this dimeric chaperone, alpha 2 replaces alpha 4 during alpha-ring assembly, thereby giving rise to a non-productive complex that lacks alpha 4, beta 3, beta 5, beta 6, and beta 7 subunits and aggregates of alpha 4. Furthermore, our structure-guided mutational data demonstrate that the Pba3-Pba4 heterodimer acts as molecular matchmaker reinforcing the interaction between alpha 4 and alpha 5, which is the crucial step in the alpha-ring formation. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

To show the applicability and productivity of the proposed method

To show the applicability and productivity of the proposed method, two three dimensional crack examples were modeled. The results show that the method and the corresponding implementation are capable of

handling dislocation and crack propagation in the three dimensional space. (C) 2014 Civil-Comp Ltd and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Adequate thyroid hormone is critical for cerebellar development. Developmental hypothyroidism induced by iodine deficiency during gestation and postnatal period results in permanent impairments of cerebellar development with an unclear mechanism. In the present C59 price study, we implicate cerebellar caveolin-1 and synaptotagmin-1, the two important molecules involved in neuronal development, in developmental iodine deficiency, and in developmental hypothyroidism. Two developmental rat models were created by administrating dam rats with either iodine-deficient diet or propylthiouracil (PTU, 5 or 15 ppm)-added drinking water from gestational day 6 till postnatal

day (PN) 28. Nissl staining and the levels of caveolin-1 and synaptotagmin-1 in cerebella were assessed on PN28 and PN42. The results show that the numbers of Purkinje cells were reduced in the iodine-deficient and PTU-treated rats. The upregulation of caveolin-1 and the downregulation of synaptotagmin-1 were observed in both iodine-deficient PKC412 and PTU-treated rats. These findings may implicate decreases in the number of Purkinje cells and the alterations in the levels of caveolin-1 and synaptotagmin-1 in the impairments of cerebellar development induced by developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism.”
“Melioidosis is a disease caused by infection with Burkholderio pseudomollei. The molecular basis for the pathogenicity of B. pseudomollei is poorly understood. However, recent work has identified the first toxin from this bacterium and shown that it inhibits host protein synthesis. Here, we review the illness that is potentially associated with biological warfare,

the pathogen and its deadly molecular mechanism of action, as well as therapeutic developments that may follow.”
“Gate operations in a quantum information processor are generally realized AP26113 by tailoring specific periods of free and driven evolution of a quantum system. Unwanted environmental noise, which may in principle be distinct during these two periods, acts to decohere the system and increase the gate error rate. Although there has been significant progress characterizing noise processes during free evolution, the corresponding driven-evolution case is more challenging as the noise being probed is also extant during the characterization protocol. Here we demonstrate the noise spectroscopy (0.1-200 MHz) of a superconducting flux qubit during driven evolution by using a robust spin-locking pulse sequence to measure relaxation (T-lp) in the rotating frame.