Previous studies upon the mode of action of CAAs suggested that these fungicides maybe inhibit phospholipid biosynthesis and buy Daporinad that the primary target could be the cholinephosphotranferase (CPT), which is referred to aminoalcoholphosphotransferases (AAPTs). We sequenced and analyzed two CPT (AAPT1 and AAPT2) genes in P. capsici. Based on the cDNA sequence, we found that the AAPT1 and AAPT2 gene span 1538 and 1459 bp and were interrupted by five and three introns, respectively. There was no difference between the parental wild-type isolate and the four CAA-resistant
mutants in the amino acid sequences of AAPT1 and AAPT2 gene. So, it was assumed that the resistance to dimethomorph was not due to mutations in the amino acid sequence of these two possible target genes. “
“Ustilago maydis strains, with low to moderate resistance to fluazinam (Rf ranging from 11.8 to 80), were isolated in a mutation frequency of 0.75 × 10−7 after chemical mutagenesis with N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine Midostaurin in vitro (MNNG). Genetic analysis resulted in the identification of two chromosomal genes. A study of the effect of mutant genes in the phytopathogenic fitness of U. maydis revealed that the resistance mutations had no apparent effect on mycelia growth rate and pathogenicity on young corn plants. Cross-resistant studies showed that the mutations for resistance to fluazinam were also responsible for resistance
to oligomycin, but not to dinitrophenol. A dose-dependent inhibition of glucose oxidation in whole cells was observed by both
fluazinam and oligomycin, and a complete inhibition was found at 40 μg/ml. The results obtained provide strong evidence that the mode of action of fluazinam consists of the inhibition the fungal cell’s energy production process through direct inhibition of the ATP synthetase. “
“MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators that are involved in numerous biological processes in both plants and animals. In plants, root and stem tissues play essential roles in their anchorage to soil as well as in nutrient and water uptake and transfer. We have quantified the expression alterations of eleven miRNAs and their target mRNAs in tomato root and stem tissues after infection with Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-Fny, CMV-FnyΔ2b (a CMV-Fny 2b-deletion mutant), CMV-Fny-satT1 selleck kinase inhibitor (CMV-Fny plus an aggressive satellite (sat) RNA variant satT1) and Tomato aspermy virus (TAV)-Bj. From 21 days postinoculation onwards, we found the stem tissues were ‘hollow’ in CMV-Fny-satT1 infected tomatoes, and a ‘fibrosis’ phenotype was observed in stems of TAV-Bj infected plants. In addition, this phenotype was associated with the decreasing of tomato lateral root numbers upon the two infections. Consistence with these phenotypic alterations, tomato miRNA/mRNA levels upon different viral infections were changed by different degrees.