, 2011). Tests of verbal memory may be more sensitive (notwithstanding the issues described here with Names cued-recall test) than those designed Selleckchem Acalabrutinib to detect visual and visuo-spatial memory (e.g., the noted susceptibility
of the Shapes visual recall test to ceiling effects), which may be supported by verbal encoding strategies (deliberate or unintentional). A small number of studies describe patients who fail to conform to this pattern, with, for example, lateralized left- or right-sided lesions resulting in a global memory deficit. One important reason for such inconsistencies is the reliance on low-resolution brain imaging, which fails to identify bilateral thalamic damage. For instance, in the first of two studies on patient QX, Edelstyn et al. (2002) initially reported that his lesion was limited to the left MDT on the basis of a CT scan. However, subsequent scanning, using high-resolution MRI imaging, revealed the presence of bilateral pathology of the dorsolateral thalamic nuclei (Edelstyn et al., 2006). The important features of the present study are, therefore, the use of high-resolution brain imaging evidence showing that
our patients’ medial thalamic lesions, selleckchem and presumed partial disconnection of the MTT, are clearly lateralized to the left side (SM) and right side (OG). Secondly, this is the first report of a double dissociation between visual memory and verbal memory in two thalamic lesion patients using the same battery of neuropsychological tests, thereby supporting the proposal that the material-specific lateralization of long-term memory extends to the MDT and thalamic tracts. Before discussing some of the other implications of our study, the findings from the stereological volume estimation of medial temporal lobe memory areas and the lateral ventricles will be considered. Both patients show evidence of ventricular enlargement, for SM this is lateralized to the left ventricle on the same side as his thalamic lesion, whereas
for OG both ventricles showed enlargement. SM’s unilateral left ventricular enlargement is consistent with other reports of ex vacuo ventricular dilatation following ifenprodil various types of thalamic pathology, where there is outward movement of the ventricles to fill the lacuna. However, this compensatory enlargement is not associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-compression on proximal structures and tracts (e.g., Weisberg & Dunn, 1983; Wood & Bigler, 1995), so should not contribute to any memory deficits. The presence of bilateral ventricular enlargement in the case of OG is unlikely to be caused by a ‘hidden’ left-sided lesion either at the level of the diencephalon or the cortex since the high-resolution MR imaging employed in this study would have picked up such damage. OG’s memory profile is also supportive of this view.