However, the NOS inhibitors possess multiple non-specific actions, including antagonism of muscarinic
acetylcholine Selleck GSK1210151A receptors (13), generation of superoxide anions (14), inhibition of cytochrome c reduction (15), and inhibition of endothelium-independent relaxation induced by amiloride or cAMP (16). We also reported that vascular lesion formation caused by long-term treatment with L-NAME or L-NMMA is not mediated by the simple inhibition of eNOS in mice, and that activation of the tissue renin-angiotensin system and increased oxidative stress are involved in the long-term vascular effects of the L-arginine analogues in an NO-independent manner (17) and (18). The roles of NO derived from whole NOSs have also been investigated in studies with mice that lack selleck chemicals each NOS isoform. However, although the single eNOS null mice manifest accumulation of cardiovascular risk factors that mimic human metabolic syndrome (19), and although it is well established that eNOS exerts
anti-arteriosclerotic effects (20), (21), (22), (23), (24) and (25), the single eNOS null mice do not spontaneously develop arteriosclerotic/atherosclerotic vascular lesion formation (26). This inconsistency could be due to a compensatory mechanism by other NOSs that are not genetically disrupted (27). Indeed, in the singly eNOS-/- mice, up-regulation of vascular nNOS expression has been indicated (28) and (29). Furthermore, we revealed that NOS activity and NOx (nitrite plus nitrate) production are fairly well preserved in that genotype (30). Thus, the authentic roles of endogenous NO derived from entire NOSs still remain to be fully elucidated. To address this important issue, we successfully developed mice in which all three NOS genes are completely disrupted (30). The expression and activity of NOSs are totally Ketanserin absent in the triple n/i/eNOSs null mice before and after
administration of lipopolysaccharide. While the triple NOSs null mice were viable and appeared normal, their survival and fertility rates were markedly reduced as compared with wild-type mice. The triple NOSs null mice exhibited phenotypes in the cardiovascular, metabolic, renal, respiratory, and bone systems. These results provide evidence that NOSs play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of disorders. This review summarizes the latest knowledge on the significance of NOSs in vivo, based on lessons we learned from experiments with our triple mutant model. The triple NOSs null mice were significantly hypertensive as compared with the wild-type mice (30). The degree of hypertension in the triple NOSs null mice was similar to that in the eNOS null and eNOS gene-disrupted double NOSs null mice (Fig. 1A).