37, P<0 05; CrpC: F= 11 697, P<0 001) In conclusion, the a

37, P<0.05; CrpC: F= 11.697, P<0.001). In conclusion, the application of ascendant and descendant UF profiles in automated PD is feasible and results in better UF and small solute clearances, thus preventing inadequate dialysis and volume overload.”
“Radio-toxins are toxic metabolites produced by ionizing irradiation and have toxic effects similar to those caused by direct irradiation. We have investigated the effect of a quinoid radio-toxin (QRT) obtained from gamma-irradiated potato tuber on various organs in

mice using ex vivo and in vivo EPR spectroscopy. Results indicate a decrease in the activity of ribormcleotide reductase enzyme in spleen of mice treated with 0.2 mg QRT. AG-014699 datasheet A dose of 2 mg QRT was fatal to mice within 45-60 min of treatment. Nitrosyl hemoglobin complexes alpha(Fe2+-NO)alpha-(Fe2+)beta-(Fe2+)(2) were detected from spleen, blood, liver, kidney, heart, and lung tissue samples of mice treated with lethal doses of QRT. A significant decrease of pO(2) in liver and brain was observed after administration of QRT at the lethal dose. The time of the appearance of the nitrosyl hemoglobin complex and its intensity varied with the dose of QRT and

the type of tissue. These results indicate that the effect of the QRT is more prominent in spleen and to a lesser extent in liver and blood. The QRT action at the lethal doses resulted in an Forskolin increased hypoxia over time with disruption of compensatory adaptive response. The results indicate similar outcome of QRT as observed with gamma-irradiation. (c) 2008 Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“There is still disagreement on whether peritoneal dialysis (PD) should begin with VX-661 concentration a full dose (Full_Dial) or with

incremental doses (Incr_Dial) to compensate for the amount of Kt/V no longer supplied by the residual renal function (RRF). The aim of this study is to assess the effects of an Incr_ Dial protocol on the choice of dialysis modality, RRF, and adequacy. The Incr_ Dial protocol in our center is as follows: for patients with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) > 5ml min(-1), PD is initiated with two exchanges per day (continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD)) or four sessions per week (ambulatory PD (APD)); and hemodialysis (HD) is initiated with two sessions per week. The PD dose is then increased in proportion to the reduction in the GFR as follows: GFR <= 5 and > 3ml min(-1) = 3 CAPD exchanges or five APD sessions; GFR <= 5 and >3ml min(-1) = full dialysis dose (Full_Dial). The effects of the Incr_ Dial protocol on the choice of dialysis modality were assessed on 87 patients (pts) (age: 69.3 +/- 13.1 years) who initiated dialysis between 1 January 2004 and 31 May 2007. The effects of Incr_Dial on RRF and dialytic adequacy were assessed in 11 pts treated with two CAPD exchanges per day for a total of 106 months (mean +/- s.d. 9.7 +/- 6.

3, 0 2-0 4), was associated with improved perinatal outcomes, but

3, 0.2-0.4), was associated with improved perinatal outcomes, but also with increased

risk of stay in neonatal ICU (2.0, 1.1-3.6; and 2.1, 1.2-3.7, respectively).

Interpretation To improve maternal and perinatal outcomes, Caesarean section should be done only when there is a medical indication.”
“This study was designed to test two hypotheses about binaural hearing: (1) that binaural cues are primarily processed in the hemisphere contralateral to the perceived location of a sound; and (2) that the two main binaural cues, interaural timing differences and interaural level differences, are processed in separate see more channels in the auditory cortex. Magnetoencephalography was used to measure brain responses to dichotic pitches – a perception of pitch created by segregating a narrow band of noise from a wider band of noise – derived from interaural timing or level disparities. Our results show a strong modulation of interhemispheric M100 amplitudes by ITD cues. When these cues simulated source presentation unilaterally from the right hemispace, M100 amplitude changed from a predominant right hemisphere pattern to a bilateral pattern.

In contrast, ILD cues lacked any capacity to alter the right hemispheric distribution. These data indicate that intrinsic hemispheric biases are large in comparison to any contralaterality biases in the auditory system. Importantly, both types of binaural cue elicited a circa 200 ms latency object-related negativity component, believed to reflect automatic cortical CRT0066101 cell line processes involved in distinguishing concurrent auditory objects. These results support the conclusion that ITDs and ILDs are processed by distinct neuronal populations

to relatively late stages of cortical processing indexed by the M100. However information common to the two cues seems to be extracted for use in a subsequent stage of auditory scene segregation indexed by the object related negativity. This may place a new bound on the extent to which sound location cues are processed in separate channels of the auditory cortex. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the leading cause of maternal mortality in the developed world. Mortality from PE in pregnancy might be related to challenges in targeting the right population for prevention, ensuring that selleck screening library diagnosis is suspected and adequately investigated, and initiating timely and best possible treatment of this disease. Pregnancy is an example of Virchow’s triad: hypercoagulability, venous stasis, and vascular damage; together these factors lead to an increased incidence of venous thromboembolism. This disorder is often suspected in pregnant women because some of the physiological changes of pregnancy mimic its signs and symptoms. Despite concerns for fetal teratogenicity and oncogenicity associated with diagnostic testing, and potential adverse effects of pharmacological treatment, an accurate diagnosis of PE and a timely therapeutic intervention are crucial.

A total of 110 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of AS accordin

A total of 110 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of AS according to the modified New York classification criteria were invited to participate in the study. Patients completed a questionnaire, which also included questions relating to the impact of AS on their sexual function, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. The patient sample comprised 110 men. The mean age of patients was 38.5 +/- A 12.6 years. Among the 110 patients, only 73 (67 %) have already had sexual activity. In this group of patients, 32 (44 %) were unsatisfied, 30 (41 %) reported erectile dysfunction, and 28 (38.4 %) had orgasmic trouble. Multivariate

analysis showed that fatigue and sleep disturbance were independently Wortmannin nmr associated with erectile dysfunction. This study suggests that AS in men seems to impact on sexual lives. Fatigue and sleep disturbance were independently associated

with perceived problems with sexual activity.”
“Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a common inflammatory disease of the elderly in western countries, but the prevalence is apparently different between races and countries. Until MDV3100 manufacturer now, an epidemiologic study of PMR is limited in Korea. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical data of 78 patients with PMR who were treated in 5 tertiary hospitals, and analyzed initial laboratory data, symptoms, therapeutic responses, and prognostic factors for relapse 1 year after treatments. Sixty percent of patients had pain in both shoulder and hip girdles with 10.6 weeks of duration, 75.9 +/- A 32.7 mm/h of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), Elafibranor concentration and 6.2 +/- A 6.4 mg/dl of C-reactive protein. The rate of relapse and remission at 1 year was 38.4 and 2.5 %, respectively. The rate of overall relapse was 46.1 %, and the relapse occurred mostly in a year, especially between 6 and 12 months after diagnosis. There were more female in relapse group (88.9 %, p = 0.037), and cumulative steroid dose of 1

year was significantly higher in relapse group (5.5 +/- A 2.7 vs. 4.4 +/- A 2.5 g, p = 0.018). Independent risk factors for relapse were initial CRP a parts per thousand yen 2.5 mg/dl (OR 6.296, p = 0.047) and the use of hydroxychloroquine (OR 6.798, p = 0.035). Initial dosage or tapering speed of steroid did not influence on prognosis. In Korean patients with PMR, baseline clinical characteristics and relapse rate were similar to previous studies, but our patients accompanied no giant cell arteritis and showed lower remission rate as well as delayed therapeutic response and later occurrence of relapse. More aggressive management would be needed according to the clinical status of patients.”
“To examine whether -174G/C interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene polymorphism, previously reported to correlate with IL-6 level, influences response to etanercept therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

This suggests that blocking the Wnt/frizzled signaling pathway co

This suggests that blocking the Wnt/frizzled signaling pathway could be a potential novel therapeutic target to prevent the adverse cardiac remodeling after MI. (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“With the recent advances in NMR relaxation techniques, protein motions on functionally important timescales can be studied at atomic resolution. Here, we have used NMR-based relaxation experiments at several temperatures and both 600 and 900 MHz to characterize the inherent dynamics of the enzyme cyclophilin-A (CypA). We have discovered multiple chemical exchange processes within the enzyme that form a “”dynamic continuum”

that spans 20-30 angstrom comprising active site residues and residues THZ1 purchase proximal to the active site. By combining mutagenesis with these NMR relaxation techniques, a simple method of counting the dynamically sampled conformations has been developed. Surprisingly, a combination of point mutations has allowed for the specific

regulation of many of the exchange processes that occur within CypA, suggesting that the dynamics of an enzyme may be engineered.”
“Background/Aims: Tubastatin A mouse Reduction of capillary network density occurs early in the development of metabolic syndrome and may be relevant for the precipitation of diabetes. Agonists of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma transcription factor are vasculoprotective, but their capacity for structural preservation of the microcirculation is unclear. Tozasertib Methods:

Male Wistar rats were rendered diabetic by streptozotocin and treated with pioglitazone in chow for up to 12 weeks. Capillary density was determined in heart and skeletal muscle after platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) immunostaining. Hallmarks of apoptosis and angiogenesis were determined. Results: Capillary density deteriorated progressively in the presence of hyperglycemia (from 971/mm(2) to 475/mm(2) in quadriceps muscle during 13 weeks). Pioglitazone did not influence plasma glucose, left ventricular weight, or body weight but nearly doubled absolute and relative capillary densities compared to untreated controls (1.2 vs. 0.6 capillaries/myocyte in heart and 1.5 vs. 0.9 capillaries/myocyte in quadriceps muscle) after 13 weeks of diabetes. No antiapoptotic or angiogenic influence of pioglitazone was detected while a reduced expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-3 alpha and PPAR coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1 alpha) mRNA as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein possibly occurred as a consequence of improved vascularization. Conclusion: Pioglitazone preserves microvascular structure in diabetes independently of improvements in glycemic control and by a mechanism unrelated to VEGF-mediated angiogenesis. Copyright (C) 2012 S.

In the early stages of the infection, the complex of P123+nsP4 fo

In the early stages of the infection, the complex of P123+nsP4 forms the primary replication complexes (RCs) that function in negative-strand RNA synthesis. The following processing steps make nsP1+P23+nsP4, and later nsP1+nsP2+nsP3+nsP4. The latter mature complex is active in positive-strand RNA synthesis but can no longer

produce negative strands. However, the regulation of negative- and positive-strand RNA synthesis apparently is not the only function of ns polyprotein processing. In this study, we developed Sindbis virus mutants that were incapable of either P23 or P123 cleavage. Both mutants replicated in BHK-21 cells to levels comparable to those of the cleavage-competent virus. They continuously produced negative-strand check details RNA, but its synthesis was blocked by the translation inhibitor cycloheximide. Thus, after negative-strand synthesis, the ns proteins appeared to irreversibly change conformation

and formed mature RCs, in spite of the lack of ns polyprotein cleavage. However, learn more in the cells having no defects in alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) production and signaling, the cleavage-deficient viruses induced a high level of type I IFN and were incapable of causing the spread of infection. Moreover, the P123-cleavage-deficient virus was readily eliminated, even from the already infected cells. We speculate that this inability of the viruses with unprocessed polyprotein to productively replicate in the IFN-competent cells and in the cells of mosquito origin was an additional, important factor in ns polyprotein cleavage development. In the case of the Old World alphaviruses, it leads to the release of nsP2 protein, which plays a critical role in inhibiting the VX-661 cellular antiviral response.”
“SORL1 is an element of the amyloid precursor protein processing pathway and is therefore a good candidate for affecting Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk. Indeed, there have been reports of associations between variation in SORL1

and AD risk. We examined six statistically significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms from the initial observation in a large Caucasian American case-controls cohort (1000 late-onset AD [LOAD] cases and 1000 older controls). Analysis of allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies revealed no association with LOAD risk in our cohort. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Apoptosis is a host defense mechanism against viruses that can be subverted by viral gene products. Human cytomegalovirus encodes viral mitochondria-localized inhibitor of apoptosis (vMIA; also known as pUL37x1), which is targeted to mitochondria and functions as a potent cell death suppressor by binding to and inhibiting proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members Bax and Bak. vMIA expression also dramatically alters mitochondrial morphology, causing the fragmentation of these organelles. A potential ortholog of vMIA, m38.


The addition of the number of altered markers incre


The addition of the number of altered markers increased the concordance indices of the base model that included grade, lymph node status, lymphovascular invasion selleck inhibitor and concomitant carcinoma in situ for disease recurrence and disease specific survival from 54.7% to 71.7% and from 64.3% to 77.5%, respectively.

Conclusions: Assessment of p53, p27 and Ki-67 in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder specimens improves the prediction of recurrence-free and urothelial carcinoma of the bladder specific survival in patients with pT1 disease at radical cystectomy. These markers may help stratify the heterogeneous population of patients with pT1 disease into risk groups that can be used to guide clinical decision making regarding observation vs adjuvant therapy.”
“The signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) acts as physiological activator of NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NO-GC) in the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and nervous systems. Two isoforms of NO-GC are known to exist on the protein level. The enzyme is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (alpha(1) or alpha(2)) and a beta subunit (beta(1)). Strategies for the genomic deletion of

either subunit have been developed in the recent years. Removal of one of the two isoforms by deletion of one of the alpha subunits allowed www.selleckchem.com/products/Fedratinib-SAR302503-TG101348.html the investigation of the specific functions of the respective isoform. The deletion of the beta(1) subunit led to complete knockout thus completely disrupting the NO/cGMP signaling cascade. The phenotypes of these KO mice have corroborated the

already known physiological importance of the NO/cGMP cascade e.g. in the regulation find more of blood pressure, platelet inhibition, interneuronal communication; yet, they have also given hints to novel functions and mechanisms. In addition, mice lacking both NO-GC isoforms permitted the investigation of possible cGMP-independent signaling pathways of NO. As cell- and tissue-specific knock-out models are beginning to emerge, a more detailed analysis of the importance of the NO receptor in specific tissues will become possible. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: We determined the associations between comorbidity, and overall survival and bladder cancer specific survival after radical cystectomy.

Materials and Methods: The Alberta Urology Institute Radical Cystectomy database is an ongoing multi-institutional computerized database containing data on all adult patients with a diagnosis of primary bladder cancer treated with radical cystectomy in Edmonton, Canada from April 1994 forward. The current study is an analysis of consecutive database patients treated between April 1994 and September 2007. Comorbidity information was obtained through a medical record review using the Adult Comorbidity Evaluation 27 instrument. The outcome measures were overall survival and bladder cancer specific survival.

We classified the different shapes of the quadrigeminal cistern a

We classified the different shapes of the quadrigeminal cistern as open or closed cisterns. This can be helpful in the choice of the surgical approach to the lesions arising in this area.”
“Iron is the fourth most common element in the Earth’s crust and is crucial for life. Over the last few years, our understanding of iron metabolism has dramatically increased due to the discovery of hepcidin, which is produced by hepatocytes and modulated in response to anemia, hypoxia and inflammation. It has been found PF-562271 order that anemia upregulates lipocalin 2 (NGAL; neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin) in the liver and serum. The aim

of this review is to summarize the current knowledge dealing with a possible role of hepcidin and NGAL in iron metabolism and its regulation, particularly in kidney disease. Elevated NGAL a few days after insult is a possible preventive or protective mechanism limiting renal injury. NGAL is an innate

antibacterial factor as well as hepcidin. NGAL binds siderophores, thereby preventing iron uptake by bacteria. Hepcidin, an antibacterial defensin, prevents iron absorption from the gut and iron release from macrophages, leading to hypoferremia and anemia. Both proteins sequester iron, but by different mechanisms. However, these proteins involved in iron metabolism do not seem to be independently related. Taking into account the antimicrobial moieties of NGAL, further studies are needed to address the role of NGAL in iron metabolism and inflammation in renal failure. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“BACKGROUND: Advances in medicine selleck screening library have largely followed BAY 11-7082 advances in technology. Medical strides have been made when physicians and researchers

have adapted growing science to target specific problems. A new medical field, telemedicine, has emerged that links physicians with colleagues and patients. Cell phone technology is affordable for almost everyone, and basic models include digital photography.

OBJECTIVE: We present a case series exhibiting the utility of digital pictures taken with patients’ cell phones.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION: Our patients had wound infections requiring daily intravenous antibiotics and dressing changes. In years past, these patients would have required prolonged hospitalizations. In the era of managed care, patients with these infections are discharged from the hospital, but close outpatient observation is required to monitor the wound. Our patients lived up to 8 hours away from the hospital. Daily appointments for wound checks in the clinic were not practical. Wounds were thus monitored via cell phone images without the inconvenience of travel and the expense of staying in a local hotel, along with leaving appointments in the clinic available for others with new neurosurgical issues.

INTERVENTION: Wound evaluations were conducted with the cameras on patients’ cell phones. These images were transmitted to the surgeon via text messaging and emails.

(J Vasc Surg 2012; 55: 1623-8 )”
“Neurobiological and psycho

(J Vasc Surg 2012; 55: 1623-8.)”
“Neurobiological and psychophysical evidence GDC 973 indicates a functional subdivision of the human visual field with a border at approximately 10-15 degrees eccentricity. Recent support for this inhomogeneity comes from an attention study on inhibition of return (IOR),

which shows a much stronger IOR effect in the periphery relative to the perifoveal visual field (Bao & Poppel [1]). Is this inhomogeneity of the visual field also reflected in the temporal dynamics of IOR? To answer this question, we examined when IOR effects disappear at the two functional regions of the visual field. Consistent with previous observations, IOR is much stronger in the periphery relative to the perifoveal visual field, but the two decay functions reach threshold at approximately the same time. This observation suggests a common temporal control window for IOR in both perifoveal and peripheral visual fields. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The appropriate application of endovascular intervention vs bypass for both critical limb ischemia (CLI) and intermittent claudication (IC) remains controversial, and outcomes from large, contemporary series are critical to help inform treatment decisions. Therefore, we sought to define the early and 1-year outcomes of lower extremity

bypass (LEB) in a large, multicenter regional cohort, this website and analyze trends in the use of LEB with or without prior endovascular interventions.

Methods: The Vascular Study Group of New England database was used to identify all infrainguinal LEB procedures performed between 2003 and 2009. The primary study endpoint was 1-year amputation-free survival (AFS). Secondary endpoints included in-hospital mortality and morbidity, including

major adverse cardiac events. Trend analyses were conducted to identify annual trends in the proportion of LEBs performed for an indication of IC, in-hospital outcomes, including mortality and morbidity, Pifithrin-�� cost and 1-year outcomes, including AFS. Analyses were performed on the entire cohort and then stratified by indication.

Results: Between 2003 and 2009, 2907 patients were identified who underwent LEBs (72% for CLI; 28% for IC). The proportion that underwent LEB for IC increased significantly over the study period (from 19% to 31%; P < .0001). There was a significant increase over time in the proportion of LEBs performed after a previous endovascular intervention among both CLIs (from 11% to 24%; P < .0001) and ICs (from 13% to 23%; P = .02). Neither in-hospital mortality nor cardiac event rates changed significantly among either group. There was no significant change in 1-year AFS in patients with IC (97% in 2003 and 98% in 2008; P for trend .63) or in patients with CLI (73% in 2003 and 81% in 2008; P = .10).

Materials and Methods: A retrospective, population based cohort

Materials and Methods: A retrospective, population based cohort

was assembled using administrative data records, and adults who underwent IBET762 enterocystoplasty between 1993 and 2009 were included in the analysis. Administrative data sources were used to measure primary exposure (neurogenic bladder and concurrent catheterizable channel or anti-incontinence procedure) and primary outcome (urological surgical procedures after enterocystoplasty). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used (covariates of age, gender, Charlson score and socioeconomic status).

Results: We identified 243 patients, of whom 61% had a neurogenic bladder, 20% had a simultaneous incontinence procedure and 18% underwent creation of a catheterizable channel. Median followup was 7.8 years (IQR 4.0-12.2). The proportion of selleck chemical patients who required a subsequent urological procedure was 40% (0.098 procedures per person-year of followup). A simultaneous incontinence procedure at enterocystoplasty was a significant predictor of future surgical procedures (HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.02-2.12, p = 0.0414). Cystolitholapaxy was the most common subsequent procedure (25% of patients) and a catheterizable channel conferred a significant risk of cystolitholapaxy

(HR 2.92, 95% CI 1.461-5.85, p = 0.0024).

Conclusions: Repeat urological surgery is common after enterocystoplasty. Patients who require a simultaneous incontinence procedure at enterocystoplasty are more likely to require future surgery. Patients with catheterizable channels are at significant risk for future cystolitholapaxy.”
“To gain further insight into the abortive stages and ultrastructural changes leading to pollen degeneration of a novel cytoplasmic male sterile radish 805A,

we compared differences of cellular and subcellular structure of sterile anther with fertile anther by light and electron microscopy analysis. Two types about of locule degeneration in sterile anther were detected, of which the time of degeneration occurred and completed was different. In type I, abnormality of pollen mother cells (PMCs) and tapetal cells, including condensation of cytoplasm and large vacuoles within tapetal cells, was shown at PMC stage. In type II, meiosis and early tetrad stage progressed normally except for large vacuoles that appeared in tapetal cells. Ultrastructural alterations of the cellular organization were observed in the type II locules, such as chromatin condensation at the periphery of the nucleus and degeneration of the karyotheca, compared with normal pollen development. The results suggested that the cytoplasmic male sterility anther degeneration was probably caused by dysfunctions of tapetum and vacuolation of tapetum, PMCs, and microspores.

No catheterizable channel in group 2 had to be revised This diff

No catheterizable channel in group 2 had to be revised. This difference is statistically significant (p = 0.02).

Conclusions: An antegrade continence enema

stopper inserted into the catheterizable channel for 3 to 6 months postoperatively effectively eliminates the incidence of stomal stenosis.”
“Glutamatergic signaling plays an important role in the behavioral and molecular plasticity observed in behavioral sensitization to cocaine. Redistribution of the glutamate receptors in the synaptosomal membrane fraction was investigated in the nucleus accumbens, dorsolateral striatum, and ventral tegmental area at 1 or 21 days of withdrawal in behaviorally sensitized rats. At I day of withdrawal, there were no changes in either tissue level or redistribution

of glutamate receptors in nucleus accumbens core and shell and JPH203 ventral tegmental area. At 21 days of withdrawal, there was a decrease in the expression of mGluR2/3 protein in core and shell, an increase in GluR1 and a decrease in Homer1b/c proteins in the nucleus accumbens core tissue. In dorsolateral striatum, the tissue level of NMDAR2B protein was increased. Moreover, there was an augmented presence of AMPA (GluR1, GluR2), NMDA (NMDAR1, 2A, 2B), and group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR5) proteins in the synaptosomal fraction in core and shell of the nucleus accumbens. There was also an increase in synaptosomal mGluR2/3 protein in nucleus accumbens core. The redistribution find more of glutamate receptors was selective for nucleus accumbens since no changes were observed in the dorsolateral striatum and ventral tegmental area. While the tissue level of the Homer1b/c protein was selectively reduced

in nucleus accumbens core, that of PSD95, PICK1, and actin was not changed in any of the brain regions examined. However, the synaptosomal MLN2238 price membrane fraction level of Homer1b/c and PSD95 was increased in nucleus accumbens core and shell, with no changes in PICK1, and a decrease in actin protein. These observations suggest that significant redistribution of glutamate receptors and postsynaptic scaffolding proteins into synaptosomal membrane fraction is associated with withdrawal from behavioral sensitization to cocaine. (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of IBRO.”
“Purpose: Desmopressin is an evidence-based medicine level 1, category A therapy for monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis. However, in up to 40% of patients only partial desmopressin response is obtained. While the poor pharmacokinetic characteristics of the different available formulations may have a role in apparent therapy resistance, there are limited data available to support this theory. We sought to identify pharmacodynamic factors involved in partial desmopressin response or desmopressin resistance in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis, with special emphasis on concentrating performance, and time to reach and duration of maximal urine concentration.