They were aged 23–66 years, with similar selleck products age (±2 years), gender and oral conditions (use of dentures or orthodontic devices and smoking; salivary flow was not evaluated) to the HIV-positive
individuals. The most recent data for the values of the CD4 cell count, viral load, antiretroviral treatment and antibiotic use were obtained from the medical records of the HIV group. Antimicrobial/antifungal therapy during the 3 months preceding the sampling, diabetes mellitus, use of antidepressant drugs, pregnancy and use of orthodontic appliances were considered exclusion criteria. Samples from each individual were collected by oral rinses with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; 0.1 M, pH 7.2) for 10 min.19 Dinaciclib The samples were centrifuged for 10 min at 8000 × g and the supernatant was discarded. The pellets were resuspended in 2.5 ml of PBS. Dilutions of 10−1 and 10−2 in PBS were made, and an aliquot (0.1 ml) of each dilution was plated on mannitol agar (Difco, USA) and MacConkey agar (Difco, USA) in duplicate. Plates were incubated at 37 °C for 48 h. After this period, colonies were counted and the number of colony-forming units per millilitre (cfu/ml) was obtained.
Colonies with different morphologies were subjected to microscopic confirmation and were isolated and stored in gelose agar at room temperature. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus isolates were identified according to the phenotypic tests proposed by Koneman et al. 20 Coagulase-negative isolates were identified using the API Staph system (Biomerieux, France). Isolates of Gram-negative rods were identified using the API 20E system (Biomerieux, France), according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The proportions of individuals positive for the studied microorganisms in the control and experimental groups were compared by a Z-test. Counts of the microorganisms obtained for
HIV-positive and control groups were compared by a Mann–Whitney test. The Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA was used to compare the counts of microorganisms according to CD4 cell count Isotretinoin and viral load in HIV-positive patients. Values of p ≤ 0.05 were considered statistically significant. For comparison purposes, patients were classified into 3 subgroups according to counts (cells/mm3) of CD4 lymphocytes (<200, 200–500 and >500), based on the anti-retroviral therapy guidelines for adults and adolescents infected with HIV.21 and 22 Patients were also divided into subgroups based on viral load (<400, 400–20,000 and >20,000 copies/ml of serum). Similar numbers of HIV-positive patients were positive for staphylococci (84.4%) compared to the control group (86.6%) (p = 0.764). There was no statistically significant difference in the staphylococcus counts obtained from the oral cavities of control subjects and HIV-positive patients (p = 0.9839) ( Table 1). S. aureus was the most frequently isolated species in the HIV-positive group (30.2%).