(J Vase Surg 2011;54:1131-44.)”
“BACKGROUND: Folate receptor alpha (FR alpha) plays click here a pivotal role in the tumorigenesis of some malignant tumors, but its role and clinical significance in pituitary adenomas remain unclear.
OBJECTIVE: To identify a possible biomarker for the diagnosis of nonfunctional pituitary adenomas (NFAs) that could also be used to assess tumor behavior.
METHODS: Sporadic pituitary tumor specimens (n = 76) and normal pituitary
glands (n = 7) were examined. FR alpha protein and mRNA expression were quantified by immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, respectively. We verified the differential expression of FR alpha in pituitary adenomas and evaluated the associations of FR alpha expression with Ki-67 selleck inhibitor labeling index (LI) and clinicopathologic characteristics of NFAs. Statistical significance was determined
by using the Student t test or one-way analysis of variance.
RESULTS: FR alpha mRNA and protein was uniquely overexpressed in NF+ (immunohistochemically positive) and NF- (immunohistochemically negative) adenomas but not in functional adenomas (adrenocorticotropic hormone, growth hormone, and prolactin) or normal adenohypophysial tissues (P<.001). The expression of FR alpha was positively correlated with tumor invasiveness, size and Ki-67
LI in NFAs.
CONCLUSION: FR alpha may play an important role in the development and progression of NFAs. Therefore, Megestrol Acetate FR alpha may be useful as a molecular biomarker for the diagnosis of NFAs and assessment of tumor invasiveness.”
“The future of industrial biotechnology requires efficient development of highly productive and robust strains of microorganisms. Present praxis of strain development cannot adequately fulfill this requirement, primarily owing to the inability to control reactions precisely at a molecular level, or to predict reliably the behavior of cells upon perturbation. Recent developments in two areas of biology are changing the situation rapidly: structural biology has revealed details about enzymes and associated bioreactions at an atomic level; and synthetic biology has provided tools to design and assemble precisely controllable modules for re-programming cellular metabolic circuitry. However, because of different emphases, to date, these two areas have developed separately. A linkage between them is desirable to harness their concerted potential. We therefore propose structural synthetic biotechnology as a new field in biotechnology, specifically for application to the development of industrial microbial strains.