FEMS Microbiology Letters 2006,258(1):102–107 PubMedCrossRef 18

FEMS Microbiology Letters 2006,258(1):102–107.PubMedCrossRef 18. Ochiai N, Tokai T, Takahashi-Ando N, Fujimura M, Kimura M: Genetically engineered Fusarium as a tool to evaluate the effects of environmental factors on initiation of trichothecene biosynthesis. FEMS Microbiology Letters 2007,275(1):53–61.PubMedCrossRef 19. Ponts N, Pinson-Gadais L, Barreau

C, Richard-Forget F, Ouellet T: Exogenous H2O2 and catalase treatments interfere with Tri genes expression in liquid cultures of Fusarium graminearum . FEBS Letters 2007,581(3):443–447.PubMedCrossRef 20. Ponts N, Couedelo L, Pinson-Gadais L, Verdal-Bonnin MN, Barreau C, Richard-Forget F: Fusarium response to oxidative stress by H2O2 is trichothecene chemotype-dependent. FEMS Microbiology Letters 2009,293(2):255–262.PubMedCrossRef 21. Mullenborn C, Steiner U, Ludwig M, Oerke Mizoribine molecular weight EC: Effect of fungicides on the complex 4SC-202 in vitro of Fusarium species and saprophytic fungi colonizing wheat kernels. European Journal of Plant Pathology 2008,120(2):157–166.CrossRef 22. Ochiai N, Tokai T, Takahashi-Ando N, Fujimura M, Kimura

M: Genetically engineered Fusarium as a tool to evaluate the effects of environmental factors on initiation of trichothecene biosynthesis. FEMS Microbiology Letters 275(1):53–61. 23. D’Mello JPF, Macdonald AMC, Postel D, Dijksma WTP, Dujardin A, Placinta CM: Pesticide use and mycotoxin production in Fusarium and Aspergillus phytopathogens. European Journal of Plant Pathology 104(8):741–751. 24. Covarelli L, Turner AS, Nicholson P: Repression of deoxynivalenol accumulation and expression

of Tri genes in Fusarium culmorum by fungicides in vitro . Plant Pathology 2004,53(1):22–28.CrossRef 25. Matthies A, Buchenauer H: Effect of tebuconazole (Folicur (R)) and prochloraz (Sportak (R)) treatments on Fusarium head scab development, yield and deoxynivalenol (DON) content in grains of wheat following artificial inoculation with Fusarium culmorum . Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz/Journal of Plant diseases and Protection 107(1):33–52. 26. Kim YS, Dixon EW, Vincelli P, Farman ML: Field resistance to strobilurin (Q(o)I) fungicides in Pyricularia grisea caused by mutations in the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Phytopathology 2003,93(7):891–900.PubMedCrossRef 27. Fisher N, Brown AC, Sexton Montelukast Sodium G, Cook A, Windass J, Meunier B: Modeling the Q(o) site of crop pathogens in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytochrome b. European Journal of Biochemistry 2004,271(11):2264–2271.PubMedCrossRef 28. Fraaije BA, Butters JA, Coelho JM, Jones DR, Hollomon DW: Following the dynamics of strobilurin resistance in Blumeria graminis f.sp tritici using https://www.selleckchem.com/products/salubrinal.html quantitative allele-specific real-time PCR measurements with the fluorescent dye SYBR Green I. Plant Pathology 2002,51(1):45–54.CrossRef 29. Kaneko I, Ishii H: Effect of azoxystrobin on activities of antioxidant enzymes and alternative oxidase in wheat head blight pathogens Fusarium graminearum and Microdochium nivale .

A yeast two-hybrid assay using SSCMK1 as bait revealed that this

A yeast two-hybrid assay using SSCMK1 as bait revealed that this kinase interacts with SSHSP90 at the C terminal portion of HSP90. Inhibiting buy LY2109761 HSP90 brought about thermal intolerance in S. schenckii yeast cells and the development of a morphology at 35°C reminiscent of that observed in the SSCMK1 RNAi transformants.

This suggests that the role of SSCMK1 in thermotolerance could be through its effects on SSHSP90. These results confirmed SSCMK1 as an important enzyme involved in the dimorphism of S. schenckii. This study constitutes the first report of the transformation of S. schenckii and the use of RNAi to study gene function in this fungus. Methods Strains S. schenckii (ATCC 58251) was used for all experiments. Stock cultures were maintained in Sabouraud dextrose agar slants at 25°C as described previously [56]. S. cerevisiae strains AH109 and Y187 were used for the yeast two-hybrid screening and were supplied with the MATCHMAKER Two-Hybrid System (Clontech Laboratories Inc., Palo Alto, CA, USA). Culture see more conditions S. schenckii yeast cells were obtained by inoculating BI2536 conidia in 125 ml flask containing 50 ml of a modification of medium M. The cultures were incubated at 35°C with shaking at 100 rpm for 5 days as described previously [56]. Mycelia were obtained by inoculating conidia into a 125 ml flask containing 50 ml of this medium and incubated at 25°C without shaking. Solid cultures

were obtained by inoculating conidia or yeast cells in a modification of medium M plates with added agar (15%) and/or geneticin (300 or 500 μg/ml) and incubated at 25°C or 35°C

according to the experimental design. For the growth determinations in the presence of geldanamycin (GdA, InvivoGen, San Diego, CA, USA), conidia from 10 day-old mycelial slants (109 cells/ml) were resuspended as described previously [56] and inoculated in 125 ml flasks containing 50 ml a modification of medium M with different concentrations of GdA (2, 5 and 10 μM). The cultures were incubated at 35°C with aeration and the growth recorded as OD 600 nm at 3, 5 and 7 days of incubation and compared to that of the controls containing only dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, 250 μl/50 ml of medium), the solvent used for resuspending GdA. The results were expressed as the OD at 600 nm of cells growing in the presence MYO10 of geldanamycin/OD 600 nm of the controls ×100 ± one standard deviation of three independent determinations. The statistical significance of the differences observed in the data was analyzed using multiple comparisons with Student’s T test and a Bonferroni correction was applied. An aliquot of the cell suspension of the control cells and cells grown in geldanamycin (10 μM) containing medium were mounted on lactophenol cotton blue and observed microscopically after 7 days of incubation. Microscopy Microscopic observations of the fungus were done using a Nikon Eclipse E600, equipped with a Nikon Digital Sight DS-2Mv and the NIS-Elements F 2.

The photovoltaic properties of the ZnO/CdTe core-shell NW arrays

The photovoltaic properties of the ZnO/CdTe core-shell NW arrays when covered with the CuSCN/Au https://www.selleckchem.com/HSP-90.html back-side contact are strongly improved after the CdCl2 heat treatment but remain low. It is expected that the main limitation originates from the poor collection of the holes generated in the CdTe shell from the CuSCN/Au back-side contact. Eventually, the CdCl2 heat treatment should systematically

be achieved for the fabrication of solar cells made from ZnO/CdTe core-shell NW arrays. Acknowledgements The authors are grateful to B. Gayral, CEA-INAC, Grenoble, France, for his assistance Selonsertib mw in PL measurements. This work has been supported by the Nanosciences Foundation of Grenoble through the project II-VI Photovoltaic and by Grenoble INP with a Bonus Qualité Recherche grant through the project CELESTE. This work has also been partially supported by the Spanish Ministry under contract MAT2010-16116. References 1. Law M, Goldberger J, Yang P: Semiconductor nanowires

and nanotubes. Annu Rev Mater Res 2004, 34:83.CrossRef www.selleckchem.com/products/tucidinostat-chidamide.html 2. Garnett EC, Brongersma ML, Cui Y, McGehee MD: Nanowire solar cells. Annu Rev Mater Res 2011, 41:269.CrossRef 3. Özgür Ü, Alivov YI, Liu C, Teke A, Reshchikov MA, Doğan S, Avrutin V, Cho SJ, Morkoç H: A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices. J Appl Phys 2005, 98:041301.CrossRef 4. Schmidt-Mende L, MacManus-Driscoll JL: ZnO-nanostructures, defects, and devices. Materials Today 2007, 10:40.CrossRef 5. Wu JJ, Liu SC: Low-temperature

growth of well-aligned ZnO nanorods by chemical vapor deposition. Adv Mater 2002, 14:215–218.CrossRef 6. Park WI, Kim DH, Jung SW, Yi GC: Metal-organic vapor phase epitaxial growth of vertically well-aligned ZnO nanorods. Appl Phys Lett 2002, 80:4232–4234.CrossRef Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 7. Zheng MJ, Zhang LD, Li GH, Shen WZ: Fabrication and optical properties of large-scale uniform zinc oxide nanowire arrays by one-step electrochemical deposition technique. Chem Phys Lett 2002, 363:123–128.CrossRef 8. Vayssieres L, Keis K, Lindquist SE, Hagfeldt A: Purpose-built anisotropic metal oxide material: 3D highly oriented microrod array of ZnO. J Phys Chem B 2001, 105:3350–3352.CrossRef 9. Yamabi S, Imai H: Growth conditions for wurtzite zinc oxide films in aqueous solutions. J Mater Chem 2002, 12:3773–3778.CrossRef 10. Baxter JB, Aydill ES: Nanowire-based dye-sensitized solar cells. Appl Phys Lett 2005, 86:053114.CrossRef 11. Puyoo E, Rey G, Appert E, Consonni V, Bellet D: Efficient dye-sensitized solar cells made from ZnO nanostructure composites. J Phys Chem C 2012, 116:18117.CrossRef 12. Lévy-Clément C, Tena-Zaera R, Ryan MA, Katty A, Hodes G: CdSe-sensitized p-CuSCN/nanowire n-ZnO heterojunctions. Adv Mater 2005, 17:1512.CrossRef 13.

43, 57, 63 2 To allow for allocating resources fairly between pr

43, 57, 63 2. To allow for allocating resources fairly between present and future generations Jabareen 2008; WCED 1987, pp. 45/46 3. To allow distributing costs and benefits of development equitably among the present and future generations Brown Weiss 1989; WCED 1987, p. 46 On a project level, sustainability conceptions or visions may represent context specific P505-15 in vitro interpretations of a general definition. However, even when relating to the same issue, interpretations of sustainable development can vary considerably because people’s opinions about where to go or what to strive for can differ strongly, even fundamentally.

According to Jacobs, (1999) this plurality of possible meanings in a particular case is due to sustainable development being a so-called contestable political concept (Gallie 1956). Contested buy Quisinostat concepts such as democracy or fairness include, on the one hand, a general this website or abstract level of meaning which is “unitary but vague”, as well as, on the other hand, a specific or concrete level of meaning featuring a number of plural and contested interpretations (Jacobs 1999, 25). Whereas the abstract level of meaning corresponds to a general, mostly broadly approved, definition like that promoted by the Brundtland Commission, the plurality of context specific, more concrete

interpretations are to be attributed to the specific level of meaning. This implies that, when it comes to concrete cases, sustainability conceptions can be shaped in various—equally reasonable—ways. Thus, at the project level, what development to strive for is not self-evident but requires a normative decision. If this decision is to be made in accordance with the Brundtland report, it should be the result of participatory negotiation processes yielding visions and goals that are ideally shared by the various relevant actor and stakeholder groups and serve the common good. In other words, reflecting these people’s perspectives, understandings and views is a necessary

condition for serving the common good: “The law alone cannot enforce the common interest. It principally needs community Megestrol Acetate knowledge and support, which entails greater public participation in the decisions that affect the environment” (WCED 1987, 63). Relevant actors and stakeholders can be identified by looking for people who have power and interests (Mitchell et al. 1997) as well as expertise related to an issue (Collins and Evans 2002; Enengel et al. 2012; Thompson and Scoones 2009; Wynne 1991). Adequate sustainability conceptions are thus, on the one hand, visions, notions, ideals or sets of goals that serve the general core objectives of sustainable development while not having any unacceptable negative implications on any of these objectives. On the other hand, adequate sustainability conceptions reflect the perspectives of the relevant actors and stakeholders.

Samples positive for HBV DNA were quantified by TaqMan real-time

Samples positive for HBV DNA were quantified by TaqMan real-time PCR technology, as previously described [25], using the probe, 5’-FAM-TGTTGACAARAATCCTCACAATACCRCAGA-TAMRA-3´ (nt 218-247). The assay has a limit of detection of 10 eFT-508 clinical trial copies/reaction (i.e., 100 copies/mL serum). Categorical variables were compared using Fisher’s exact tests, and

differences between continuous variables were assessed using Student’s t-tests. Differences were considered statistically significant for P-values < 0.05. Statistical SC79 mw analyses were performed using SPSS version 17 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Primer design and PCR assays for pyrosequencing Pyrosequencing was performed using PyroMark Q96 ID (QIAGEN Valencia, PF-6463922 chemical structure CA, USA). This instrument offers quantitative SNPs and mutation analysis by rapidly sequencing short stretches of DNA directly from PCR templates.

PCR amplification and pyrosequencing primers were designed using PyroMark Assay Design 2.0 software. The following primers were designed to amplify a 218-bp fragment of the HBV rt polymerase domain containing the YMDD motif: forward primer, 5’-TTGCACCTGTATTCCCAT-3’ (nt 594-611); reverse primer, 5’-AAAATTGGTAACAGCGGTAWA AA-3’ (nt 791-812). The forward primer was 5’ biotin-labeled to enable preparation of a single-stranded template for pyrosequencing. The sequencing primer (5’-GTTTGGCTT TCAGYTAT-3’; nt 724-736) was located immediately upstream of codon rt204. DNA was amplified using 5 U/μL Platinum cAMP inhibitor Taq DNA polymerase High Fidelity (Invitrogen), 10 mM dNTPs, 10X PCR buffer, 50 mM MgCl2 and 10 μM primer mix in a final volume of 50

μL under the following thermocycling conditions: initial denaturation at 94°C for 3 min, then 30 cycles of 94°C for 30 s, 55°C for 30 s and 68°C for 30 s, followed by a final elongation step (5 min at 68°C). Biotinylated PCR products were hybridized to streptavidin-coated beads and purified using the PyroMark Q96 Vacuum Prep Workstation (Qiagen, Valencia, CA, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Sequencing primers were annealed by incubating at 80°C for 2 min. Pyrosequencing reactions were performed using the PyroMark Gold Q96 SQA Reagents in the PyroMark Q96 ID (QIAGEN). The dispensation order algorithm for pyrosequencing was CAGTACGCATG. Data collection and quantification analyses were performed using PyroMark ID software. Mixtures of plasmids carrying wild-type (WT) and YVDD-resistant (MUT) sequences were prepared to evaluate the ability of the pyrosequencing method to accurately detect and quantify minor sequence variants. Mixtures ranging from 100% WT-0% MUT to 0% WT-100% MUT were prepared at increments of 10% of each plasmid. A mixture of 95%-5% of each plasmid was tested to assess the sensitivity of the pyrosequencing assay in detecting minor subpopulations as low as 5% of the total.

The dominant phylotypes most probably originated from midgut inha

The dominant phylotypes most probably originated from midgut inhabitants. A sex specific variation was observed, this being reflected in the proportional changes of the microbial phyla, as well as at the species level. Identification methods detected a high microbial diversity among A. stephensi adult and larval

midgut. The micro flora of the investigated A. stephensi adults and larvae PARP signaling differed statistically and differences between the larval microbial diversity was more pronounced than the differences noted between A. stephensi male and female culturable and unculturables. This work provided basic information about bacterial diversity in midgut of lab-reared and field-caught A. stephensi male female and larval species and its population dynamics and hence, Selleckchem STI571 qualitative information about the total bacterial exposure in midgut environment. Our future work will include characterization of the different sources of microbes and a quantitative assessment of the different microbial taxa. It is promising that several of the isolates are Gram-negative gammaproteobacteria, for which there are well established means of genetic modification. All of the bacterial isolates from this study

will be further evaluated for their suitability as paratransgenic candidate. Methods Maintenance of Anopheles stephensi Cyclic colonies of Anopheles stephensi were maintained in a mosquitarium maintained at 28 ± 2°C and 70–80% humidity. Adult mosquitoes were offered raisins and 1% glucose solution as a source of energy. Female mosquitoes were allowed to feed on caged rabbit for their ovarian development. Eggs were collected in filter paper lined plastic bowls half filled with de-ionized selleck chemicals water and left undisturbed for two days to allow the eggs to hatch. Larvae were cultured in enamels

trays and were fed upon mixture of dog biscuit and yeast extract in 3:1 ratio. Following pupation, the pupae were transferred to BKM120 molecular weight accordingly labeled cages for emergence of adults. Collection of mosquitoes and isolation of bacterial flora from midgut IV instar anopheline larvae were collected thrice from cement tanks in District Jhajjar, Haryana, India (28°37′N and 76°39′E). The larvae were brought to the laboratory in Delhi within two hours of collection and those that are morphologically identified as Anopheles stephensi were pooled [46]. The larvae were surface sterilized for 5 sec. in 95% ethanol [28]. The larval guts were dissected aseptically in laminar hood using sterile entomological needles underneath a stereo microscope. The dissected midguts were transferred to the 100 μl of sterile phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) and were grounded to homogeneity. For studying the microflora of adult mosquito midgut, the IV instar larvae were allowed to emerge in the adult mosquitoes and the females and males were separated based on their morphological differences. The midguts of both the sexes were aseptically dissected as described for the IV instar larvae.

“Background In recent years, ceramic with nanostructures h

“Background In recent years, ceramic with nanostructures has selleck chemicals llc attracted a lot of attention and is being used in the fields of electronics, information technology, and communications [1]. It has found wide application in other areas as well, including the mechanical and chemical sciences and electrical, optical, and electrochemical energy sectors as effective electrode materials [2, 3]. Among various chemical or physical synthetic

methods, the electrospinning method is a popular one and involves the use of an electrically charged jet of polymer solution to form the nanofibers. The method can be described as follows. A high voltage is applied to the ceramic material solution with a polymer, and an electric field is generated between the tip of the syringe containing the solution and the collector. The solution is ejected in the form of a jet by electrical repulsion onto the collector, and fibers of nanoscaled diameters with inorganic precursor Mocetinostat are formed [4]. The precursor nanofibers at high temperature are calcined to remove the polymers, and ceramic phase is obtained. This technique has been applied for the preparation of various metal oxide and ceramic nanofibers as well [5, 6], which

included TiO2[7], ZnO [8], SnO2[9], BaTiO3[10], and Al2O3[2–6, 11]. Alumina (Al2O3) is one of the most important types of ceramic and is applied to the areas of catalysis, reinforcing components, electronic device fabrication, microelectronics, optics, and fire protection [12]. Most recently, alumina has been explored as effective electrode material for electrochemical energy storage device [13–15]. Al2O3 has specific physical, chemical, and mechanical properties, and during the process of BMS202 in vitro forming the stable

α-Al2O3, gibbsite is transformed to boehmite and then to a variety of metastable intermediate structures such as χ-, γ-, κ-, δ-, θ-alumina, depending on the temperature [16, 17]. The main objective of the study is to investigate the calcination conditions on morphological appearance (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate and crystal structure of the resulting alumina and the adsorption property of alumina calcined at different temperatures. Therefore, we investigated the synthesis of alumina nanofibers using a technique that combined the sol–gel and electrospinning methods using aluminum isopropoxide (AIP), an organometallic compound, as the precursor and polyvinylpyrolidone (PVP) polymer solution. The formation, morphology, and crystallinity of the electrospun alumina nanofibers were determined through thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Gas Chromatograph (Shimadzu GC-2010 Plus AF) and the alumina nanofiber samples synthesized were evaluated by nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis. In addition, different phase alumina nanofibers were applied for the adsorption of methyl orange dye (MO) solution.

Moreover, as depicted in Figure 4a, the obvious variations in the

Moreover, as depicted in Figure 4a, the obvious variations in the absorption Vactosertib spectra of the P-doped Si-NCs/sc-Si films with various R c values could be observed at photon energies above 1.8 eV (approximately <700 nm), which shows good correspondence with the trends in the IQE data. Therefore,

it is speculated that the difference in J sc losses among the devices could be attributed to the parasitic absorption in the emitter layer. More photons in the visible spectrum would be absorbed with increasing volume fraction of the Si-NCs in the P-doped Si-NCs/sc-Si film, leading to the limitation in the available solar spectrum in the device, as well as PLX-4720 in vitro the degradation of the J sc. In contrast to the J sc, the FF decreases from 72.6% to 51.9% when increasing the R c value, as depicted in Figure 6. The series resistance (R s) of the Si heterojunction solar cell was extracted from the dark J-V characteristic and shown in Figure 9 as a function of the R c value. The fill factor of a solar cell depends upon the series resistance, saturation current density, Selleck RGFP966 and diode ideality factor. Here, the reduction

in FF with increasing R c value could be mainly attributed to an increase in R s since the values of J 0 and n are similar for all heterojunction solar cells, as shown in the inset of Figure 8. As depicted in Figure 9, the R s of the Si heterojunction

solar cell is highly correlated to the conductivity of the P-doped Si-NCs/sc-Si film. Thus, it could be speculated that the FF of the Si heterojunction solar cell strongly depends on the conductivity DOK2 of the P-doped Si-NCs/SiN x film. The maximum conversion efficiency is achieved from the device with N2/SiH4 ratio of 0.79 (shown in Figure 6), where the balance between J sc and FF losses is optimized. The best heterojunction solar cell has 8.6% conversion efficiency, with a V oc of 500 mV, J sc of 26.5 mA/cm2, and 65.2% in fill factor. While the data obtained is based on our preliminary fabrication of Si-NCs/sc-Si heterojunction cells, further improvement in fabrication of Si-NC emitters (layer thickness, deposition and doping conditions, etc.) and related process parameters is likely to improve the photovoltaic efficiency. Figure 9 Series resistance and electrical conductivity as a function of the R c value. Conclusions In this report, we have investigated the feasibility of using P-doped Si-NCs/SiN x films as emitters on p-type sc-Si substrates for fabrication of Si-based heterojunction solar cells.

2 Incidence of NVFX during treatment with TPTD and after treatmen

2 Incidence of NVFX during treatment with TPTD and after treatment cessation. Incidence = number of patients with new NVFX/number of patients at risk × 100 Fracture sites included, #PI3K inhibitor randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# in decreasing

order of frequency, the distal forearm (n = 21), foot/toes (n = 20), hip (n = 16), rib (n = 14), “other” sites (n = 14), leg (n = 9), hand/fingers (n = 7), pelvis (n = 7), knee (n = 7), ankle (n = 6), humerus (n = 3), shoulder (n = 2), skull (n = 1), breastbone (n = 0), and clavicle (n = 0). “Other” sites were not specifically identified by patients but were considered sites other than the following: ankle, arm (humerus), breast bone (sternum), collarbone (clavicle), distal forearm (wrist), foot/toes, hand/fingers, hip, knee, leg,

pelvis, ribs, shoulder, skull, spine L1-L4, and spine T4-T12. Most fractures were either self-reported or confirmed by x-ray report. The incidence of fractures was not compared by type of fracture or whether fractures were self-reported versus radiologically confirmed due to the small sample sizes in the subgroups. Many osteoporosis studies exclude fractures of fingers and SIS3 mouse toes in the NVFX analysis. We performed an additional analysis that excluded foot/toes, hand/fingers, and “other sites” (which was a separate category). The findings were very similar to those reported, which included all NVFXs (data for additional analysis not shown). When the efficacy population was analyzed by gender (Table 3), the incidence of new NVFX in women was significantly lower for each of the three later treatment periods compared with the >0 to ≤6 months reference period (each p < 0.05), while significant differences did not emerge in any group for the men. However, there were only a small number of fracture events (n = 6) in the male cohort, which may have

limited the ability to detect differences. Table 3 Incidence of nonvertebral fragility fractures by gender during the treatment phase Duration (months) Gender Number of patients with new NVFX Number of patients at risk Incidence (95 % selleck inhibitor CI)a >0 to ≤6 Female 50 3,350 1.49 (1.11, 1.96) Male 3 369 0.81 (0.17, 2.36) >6 to ≤12 Female 25 2,665 0.94* (0.61, 1.38) Male 2 305 0.66 (0.08, 2.35) >12 to ≤18 Female 17 2,306 0.74** (0.43, 1.18) Male 1 264 0.38 (0.01, 2.09) >18 to ≤24 Female 18 2,003 0.90* (0.53, 1.42) Male 0 222 0.00 (0.00, 1.65) NVFX nonvertebral fragility fractures *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01 compared to the incidence rate from >0 to ≤6 months (reference period) aIncidence = number of patients with NVFX/total patients at risk × 100 As shown in Table 4, a significantly greater percentage of patients who reported a new NVFX had a prior fragility fracture compared to patients with no new fracture.

Circ J 2013;77:146–52 PubMedCrossRef 14

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