The extremely high absorption of MM could be due to the easy pene

The extremely high absorption of MM could be due to the easy penetration of the small structures into fabrics. However, the increase in the size of these structures (see Table 3) did not prevent their exit from the fibres, and desorption was notable. This finding could be due to the higher permeability of textiles compared with human skin, which may explain why this effect was not observed [25, 26]. To study the penetration of active principles through the skin, an in vitro methodology based on percutaneous absorption

is performed to demonstrate the delivery of an encapsulated principle from a textile to the ABT-888 mw different layers of the skin (stratum corneum, epidermis, or dermis). The percutaneous Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical absorption of the two formulations, Lip (2% GA, 4% PC) and MM (2% GA, 4% PC, and 30% Oramix CG 110), was evaluated, as were the CO and PA textiles impregnated

with the same Lip or MM. The two formulations and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the CO and PA textiles previously treated with the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical formulations were placed in contact with the skin discs as described in Section 2. The aim of this assay was to demonstrate tracer delivery into the different layers of the skin. GAs encapsulated in MMs and Lips, which were either embedded or not embedded in cosmetotextiles, were applied to the skin to study the percutaneous absorption profiles of the agents. The GA extracted from a washing sample, the fabric, the stratum corneum, the rest of the epidermis, the dermis, and the receptor Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical fluid was analysed. The results are listed in Table 4 and graphically represented in Figure 2. Figure 2 In vitro percutaneous absorption of gallic acid (GA) in Lip and MM formulations and the PA and CO cosmetotextiles Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (SC: stratum corneum, R. Fluid: receptor fluid) (significant level accepted *P < 0.01). Table 4 In vitro percutaneous absorption

of GA (gallic acid) in Lip and MM formulations and the PA and CO cosmetotextiles. Comparison of percutaneous absorption in percentage indicates that it is higher when GA was applied as a formulation (Lip or MM) than when it is applied through cosmetotextile. Besides, CO delivers to the skin GA in a greater extent than PA. As shown in Figure 2, the penetration of GA formulated in Lip nearly was much higher than that of GA formulated in MM. All skin compartments showed a higher amount of GA when vehiculised with Lip than when vehiculised with MM. This result could be due to the bilayer structure of the Lip, which is similar to the lipid bilayer structures present in the SC and in the cellular membranes of the skin [28]. Evidence that Lips do not penetrate deeper than the stratum corneum layer has been published [29]. However, Lips enhance the penetration of both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs [30, 31].

3) Table 3 Mean pharmacokinetic parameters for bupivacaine in ra

3). Table 3 Mean pharmacokinetic parameters for bupivacaine in rabbits receiving twice weekly subcutaneous bolus doses of DepoFoam bupivacaine (EXPAREL) or bupivacaine HCl solution (mean ±SD; N = 3/sex/group). In both species, the kinetic release profile was consistent with sustained release of the drug from the delivery system at the site of administration (Figures ​(Figures3,3, and ​and4).4). The attenuation of C max was on the order of two- to threefold compared to Bsol after the first dose. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical The accumulation was more evident at the 30mg/kg dose

in rabbits compared to dogs. Figure 3 Mean plasma Cyclosporin A concentrations of bupivacaine following subcutaneous injection of DepoFoam bupivacaine (SKY0402, aka EXPAREL) and bupivacaine

HCl solution in rabbits (values represent mean ± SD, N = 3/sex/group). SKY0402: previous designation for … Figure 4 Mean plasma concentrations of bupivacaine following subcutaneous administration of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical DepoFoam bupivacaine (SKY0402, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical aka EXPAREL) and bupivacaine HCl solution in dogs (values represent mean ± SD, N = 3/sex/group). SKY0402: previous designation … 4. Discussion When interpreting toxicology results, consideration has to be given to the particular sensitivity of the species to local reactions. The rabbit is, as a general rule, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical more sensitive than other species to the action of most substances [12]. The sensitivity of the rabbit is due to the thinness of the skin layer and the relative absence of sc fat [13]. It is not surprising therefore that a series of twice weekly injections of EXPAREL in which each exposure would progressively intensify the degree of sensitivity Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical may cause local irritation from prolonged tissue exposure. After several repeat injections, the compartments are nearly saturated and therefore may no longer protect against potentially toxic concentrations. Also, when assessing the potential existence of cumulative

systemic effects of bupivacaine, the resulting plasma kinetics Tryptophan synthase is an important safety consideration because systemic absorption of bupivacaine causing rapid high peaks are associated with a more pronounced risk of CNS and CV effects. A brief review of the literature is provided below. The toxic response of bupivacaine is characterized by a complex interaction between the CNS and CV systems. The response, at least in part, depends on how fast the drug is administered, and the resultant blood/tissue concentrations in target tissues are affected. Particularly, injection of repeated doses of local anesthetics may cause significant increases in plasma levels with each repeated dose due to slow accumulation of the drug or its metabolites or to slow metabolic degradation.

53 While

these are therefore not monocausally related to

53 While

these are therefore not monocausally related to schizophrenia, they are one of the best genetic clues yet for a genetical high-risk state that deserves intensive further study. This applies both to chartacterizing brain phenotypes in subjects carrying or not carrying the disorder, and to trying to further dissect why these, and not any of the many other microdeletions present in the human Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical population, increase risk for psychosis. For the former approach, the main problem is that due to the relative rarity of these variants even in clinical populations, large numbers will have to be screened and characterized. Nevertheless, this work is ongoing and promises insights not only in studying the phenotypes of each of these variants by itself, but also in examining whether there are overlaps in structural or neurofunctional impairments across these microdeletions that would identify core systems related to a high-risk state. For the latter Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical attempt of trying to understand why these specific

microdeletions are highrisk, complex cis- and trans-acting genetic effects (ie, those that concern the genes affected by the microdeletion itself, or outside of it) will have to be considered. However, a simple hypothesis that can be tested is Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical whether there could be, by chance, several common risk variants for schizophrenia located in spatial proximity that are jointly affected by a microdeletion, causing a superadditive effect. Some preliminary evidence for this idea comes from 22q11DS, which includes the muchstudied risk gene COMT, discussed above, but also several other genes where schizophrenia Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical risk variants have been studied. One of these, PRODH, encoding proline oxidase (POX), has been associated with schizophrenia Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical through linkage and association. A recent study showed that functional

JAK inhibitor review polymorphisms had opposite effects on schizophrenia risk depending on whether they increased or decreased POX activity54 In multimodal genetic imaging, both functional (working memory and emotional recognition) and structural (VBM) datasets showed dissociable genetic effects: risk haplotype carriers had decreased striatal volume and these increased striatal-frontal functional connectivity, while the protective haplotype was associated with decreased striatal-frontal functional connectivity, mirroring findings in patients and suggesting that functional genetic variation in POX impacts on neostriatal-frontal circuits mediating risk and protection for schizophrenia. Since, as reviewed above, the biochemically unrelated COMT gene on overlapping circuitry in human brain, this suggests a neural mechanism whereby deletion of both genes in 22q11 syndrome could have a superadditive impact on schizophrenia risk.

18,22-27 Remarkably, these findings apply even to most recent stu

18,22-27 Remarkably, these findings apply even to most recent studies, even after many years of action to improve GPs’ ability to recognize the presence of depressive disorder in patients.19 Out of all the mental disorders, depression has certainly received the greatest attention, in terms of both indirect evidence from community studies and direct evidence by investigations in primary Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical care settings. A comprehensive community survey, the ICPE (which reanalyzed data from the general population in 6 countries2), recently examined the general population who had suffered a depressive disorder in the past 12 months: only about a fifth in Canada (22%) and the USA

(22%), and slightly more in the Netherlands (32%) and Germany (29%), actually received any type of treatment. The key role of primary care was strongly confirmed in this study, in that the vast majority of patients Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in all countries were cared for exclusively in the primary health care sector. Few received treatment from mental health specialists. It is noteworthy that intervention or treatment in this analysis was

merely defined as any treatment contact, irrespective of appropriateness in terms of type, dose, and duration of treatment. A further disturbing finding from community studies is that, for the majority of patients, it takes Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical many years from the first onset of their disorder to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the prescription of appropriate treatment.28 The recent German study, Depression 2000, was based on a national representative sample of 412 GPs and had a three stage design29 in 15 081 consecutive primary care attendees. This study revealed that of the 11% of patients meeting diagnostic criteria for DSM-IV episode of MD in this

study, two thirds were recognized by the primary care practitioner as having a clinically severe mental health Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical problem, but only 39% were inhibitors correctly diagnosed as definitely having depression, and an additional 16% as having a probable depression. Recognition rates were especially poor in males (correct identification old rate 27%) and females (33.2%) aged less than 40 years.30 If the treatments chosen worked equally well in all types of mental disorders, then the poor recognition of depression would not be an important issue. However, it is noteworthy that the unsatisfactory recognition pattern and the diagnostic imprecision had remarkable effects on the doctors’ subsequent intervention behavior: more than 40% of all patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for MD did not receive any treatment or significant intervention of any kind! MD cases correctly recognized as at least “probable depression” by the GP had the greatest likelihood (65%) of receiving first-line antidepressants (37%), psychotherapy (9%), or being referred to a mental health specialist (22%).

21 Nevertheless, today there is sound evidence showing that antid

21 Nevertheless, today there is sound evidence showing that antidepressant effects of light in SAD are real biological treatment effects.16,20,22 Dose Earlier studies have mostly used light intensities of 2500 lux. This is much more than the typical indoor illumination, ranging from 100 lux in average rooms to about 500 lux in brightly illuminated ones. Outdoor light intensities #inhibitors keyword# greatly vary with weather conditions ranging from

about 2000 lux on a rainy winter day to 10 000 lux or more (usually 50 000 to 300 000 lux) in direct sunshine. Today, light treatment with intensity of 10 000 lux has become clinical standard. One great advantage of higher intensity light is that Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical it allows for shorter exposure times. Current clinical guidelines recommend beginning treatment with 10 000 lux for 30 min in the morning.23 Nevertheless, intensities of 2500 lux have shown to have antidepressant effects when applied for 2 h daily. Timing A further finding that emerged from BLT studies is the superiority of morning light over light administered in the evening.16,20,22 By further refining

timing Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of light administration in relationship to the position of the circadian phase, Terman and coworkers achieved remission rates up to 80% in selected patient populations.5 They were able to show that response to BLT critically depends on time of delivery relative to the position of the circadian phase as determined by the onset of melatonin secretion in the evening (dim-light melatonin onset). The study suggests that the ideal therapy time is around 8.5 h after melatonin onset. Although the superiority Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of morning light in the majority of patients with SAD had been demonstrated before,16,20,22 Terman and colleagues showed that, for clinical purposes, circadian phase position can simply and reliably be determined

by administration of a modified version Home-Qst-berg morningness-eveningness scale.24 The authors also provide an online-questionnaire25 together with recommendations for individually optimized light therapy Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical timing as based on morningness-eveningness or individual circadian phase position. In summary, now there is sufficient evidence that light administered Cell press in the early morning is superior to evening light. Dawn stimulation Many patients with SAD experience markedly increased duration of sleep during the winter months.1,4,26 Usually, most of these patients have to force themselves out of bed during the weekdays despite feeling excessively drowsy. Dawn stimulation is a form of light therapy involving gradually increasing bedside light in the morning before awakening.27 Dawn stimulation has shown to improve symptoms of SAD compared with placebo light signals.28,29 In addition, dawn stimulation appears to be effective in ameliorating the difficulty awakening and morning drowsiness in SAD.

Acknowledgment We would like to thank Mrs Faranak Pormonsefi fo

Acknowledgment We would like to thank Mrs. Faranak Pormonsefi for her cooperation. Financial supports from the Hamedan University of Medical Science is gratefully acknowledged. Conflict of Interest: None declared
Background: The Endometriosis Health Profile-30 (EHP-30) is a disease-specific questionnaire to measure the health-related quality of life in patients

with endometriosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of the Persian Selleck p53 inhibitor version of Endometriosis Health Profile (EHP-30) in women with endometriosis referring to three Gynecology Clinics in Tehran, Iran. Methods: One hundred women (20 to 50 years old) with surgically confirmed endometriosis recruited from three outpatient Gynecology Clinics affiliated to the Iran University of Medical Sciences. All 100 patients were asked to complete EHP-30 questionnaire while referring to the Clinics. The findings were analyzed using descriptive statistics, internal reliability consistency, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical construct validity (using short form-36, which had already Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical been validated in Iran), factor analysis (with principle component analysis method), and

item total correlation to assess the validity and reliability of the questionnaire. Results: The internal consistency reliability of the questionnaire was high (Cronbach’s α ranged between 0.80 and 0.93 for core, and 0.78 and 0.90 for modular parts). All items were loaded on their own factors except item 17 (feeling aggressive or violent) and item 18 (feeling unwell), which

were loaded on pain and social support domains, respectively. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Construct validity of EHP-30, established by using SF-36, indicates good correlations in several similar scales of these two questionnaires. Conclusion: The findings of the study demonstrate that Persian version of EHP-30 is a valid and reliable measure to assess the quality of life in women with endometriosis. Key Words: Endometriosis, quality of life, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical validity, reliability, endometriosis health profile Introduction Endometriosis is a common gynecological condition that is associated with a variety of symptoms, most commonly chronic pelvic pain. Endometriosis affects near seven million women in the United States, and more than 70 million worldwide.1 Other reported estimates of Physiological Reviews the prevalence of endometriosis range from 1% to 52%,2,3 and the most frequently reported rate was 10%.2,4 The symptoms associated with endometriosis are major causes of morbidity and psychological complaints. Women with endometriosis have social dysfunction, feelings of frustration and isolation due to pelvic pain, infertility problems and a delay in diagnosis.5 In recent years, studies have begun to assess the effects of endometriosis on health-related quality of life (HRQL).

The complex facilitates histone deacetylation and downstream gene

The complex facilitates histone deacetylation and downstream gene silencing from the methylated CpG site.

Histone methylation can result in either gene activation or repression, depending on the specific lysine or arginine that is modified.11 Another family of enzymes, the histone demethylases, such as lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), are capable of removing this methyl Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical group from the lysine residues of histone and nonhistone proteins.12 A hallmark of non-Mendelian disease, discordance of monozygotic (MZ) twins, has traditionally been attributed to differential environmental factors activating a disease state in one of the genetically predisposed cotwins13; however, very few of these factors have been identified. Alternately, MZ twin discordance may be due to the partial stability of epigenetic factors, as diseaserelevant epigenetic dissimilarity can accumulate Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical quite readily between cotwins.5,14,15 Another non-Mendelian peculiarity,

sexual dimorphism, is the differential susceptibility to a disease between males and females. It is observed in many psychiatric conditions, such as Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, alcoholism, and mood and anxiety disorders.16 Although the exact mechanism by which they predispose or protect from a disease is currently unknown, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical there is a great deal of evidence that sex hormones exert control of gene expression via epigenetic modifications; thus it is hypothesized that sexual dimorphism in many disease states may be the result of sex hormone-induced differences in the epigenetic status of key genes.17,18 Furthermore, the degree of risk for acquiring certain complex diseases may depend Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical on the sex of the affected selleck inhibitor parent, as in schizophrenia,19 Alzheimer’s disease (AD),20 autism,21 and bipolar disorder (BD).22 Genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism in which differential epigenetic modification of genes occurs depending on their parental origin,23 is Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical thought to be the source of such parent-of-origin

effects. Diseases affecting cell growth, development, and behavior may result from disruption of the normal imprinting pattern.24 Levetiracetam In the epigenetic model of complex disease, it is assumed that a primary epigenetic disruption takes place during the maturation of the germline, and this pre-epimutation increases an organism’s risk of acquiring a disease. The pre-epimutation may be tolerated and it may not be sufficient to cause the disease itself, but with time, perhaps even decades, small misregulations add up until a threshold is crossed and the individual experiences phenotypic changes that meet diagnostic criteria for a clinical disorder. The age of disease onset may depend on the effects of tissue differentiation, stochastic factors, hormones, and likely some external environmental factors (nutrition, infections, medications, addictions, etc).

In contrast, the surrounding cortex received more complex inputs,

In contrast, the surrounding cortex received more complex inputs, implying a visuopsychic

function, further elaborated through temporal and frontal projections. A link between the geniculo-striate pathway and visual hallucinations had first been recognized in 1886 by Seguin,9 who described the occurrence of visual hallucinations within a Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical visual field defect. De Morsier had presented a case at an international congress in London in 1935 with hemifield visual hallucinations without a visual field defect, and had concluded that visual hallucinations could also be associated with lesions of the paravisual sphere, a term he attributed to Hoff and Pötzl describing connections between the TW-37 in vitro pulvinar and visual cortices (see ref 10 for a recent anatomical description). Visual hallucinatory syndromes past: de Morsier’s syndromes De Morsier’s 1936 and 1938 papers viewed visual hallucinations as a stereotyped automatism of the broadly defined visual system including the paravisual Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical sphere and temporal lobes. Damage to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the system at different locations would associate visual hallucinations with varying combinations

of motor, vestibular, and auditory symptoms and, with a lifelong interest in the history of the field,11 de Morsier attached names to the resulting syndromic entities, outlined in Table I. The main part of his 1936 work was a syndrome he named after Hermann Zingerle (1870-1935), an Austrian neurologist from Graz with an interest in motor automatisms. This consisted of visual hallucinations in the context of oculogyric crisis, persistent movement disorder, and central vestibular symptoms attributed to lesions of the parietal lobe. The modern equivalent would perhaps be the positive visual phenomena (typically Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical intensification of visual patterns and letters) associated Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with neuroleptic-induced oculogyric crises.12,13 De Morsier also honoured de Clérambault with a syndrome – not erotomania but the chronic hallucinatory psychosis which had helped derive the theory of mental automatisms. L’Hermitte was honoured with the peduncular syndrome, although

de Morsier argued that the important lesion was in the pulvinar, not the cerebral peduncles. Other visual hallucinatory syndromes he described were not named. One concerned the visual hallucinations Histone demethylase found in delirium tremens that had been studied by his friend and colleague in Geneva, Ferdinand Morel. These hallucinations had the unusual property of being precipitated when one eye was covered, typically the eye with better acuity, and were located in the central 10 to 15 degrees of the visual field. Neurodegenerative, vascular, neoplastic, toxic, traumatic, inflammatory, and epileptic etiologies were also included. Although incomplete, much of de Morsier’s classification remains relevant today, some of his notable omissions conditions that had yet to be described.

Following the here applied approach, we will integrate alternativ

Following the here applied approach, we will integrate alternative flux analysis software into our workflow framework, allowing automated isotopomer balancing. As data and results

from Flux-P can be flexibly combined with other services, for instance database queries or custom visualizations, extended analyses become possible that exceed the original MFA workflow. Flux-P is Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical unique in supporting flexible changes of the analysis workflows at the user level, which allows researchers to easily adapt their workflows to the changing needs of different analysis setups. Note that a software system that realizes a MFA workflow based on 13C-FLUX2 has recently been described by [31]. The system applies an ActiveBPEL-based process management framework for the implementation of one fixed, comprehensive workflow that integrates 13C-FLUX2, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the visualization software OMIX and additional, mostly interactive, functionality. Availability Flux-P is available for academic, non-commercial use and will be provided by the corresponding authors on request. Note that a FiatFlux license is required. Flux-P consists of a this website server running the underlying analysis software and requiring a particular setup, and the client-side workflows that can be run on any machine. On the server side, the software requires

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a Unix-based operating system (Linux, Unix, Solaris, Mac OS X), a recent Java Runtime Environment (JRE), MATLAB R2011a or later (including the MATLAB Optimization and NetCDF Toolboxes), a recent Java Runtime Environment (JRE) and the Flux-P jETI server. On the client Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical side, the software requires a recent JRE and the Java Application Building Center (jABC), Bio-jETI release, version 3.8.1 or later (available from [23]). The Flux-P workflows are platform-independent and have been tested on Windows 7, Ubuntu Linux and Mac

OS X. Acknowledgments B.E:E. acknowledges the support of Andreas Schmid Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and funding by the German Ministry of Science and Education (BMBF, Project ERA-NET SysMO, No. 0313980A) (VAPMdS) and the Ministry of Innovation, Science, Research and Technology of North Rhine-Westphalia (Bio.NRW, Technology Platform Biocatalysis, RedoxCell) Annual Review of Genetics during her PhD studies at the Chair of Chemical Biotechnology, TU Dortmund University, Germany. Supplementary Files Supplementary File 1 Supplementary File (PDF, 4337 KB) Click here for additional data file.(4.2M, pdf) Supplementary Materials Supplementary Materials Supplementary information can be accessed at Conflict of Interest Conflict of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest.
In bacteria, metabolism and signaling processes are tightly coupled to allow the cell to adapt efficiently to new environmental conditions.

In addition, the authors would like to caution physicians that th

In addition, the authors would like to caution physicians that this case report also raises the possibility of hypothermia developing in patients receiving risperidone irrespective of the duration that they take the medication and to

emphasize the importance of educating the treating physicians as well as the patients and their family with regards to the identification and remedy of this sinister adverse effect of risperidone. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Footnotes Funding: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. Conflict of interest statement: The author declares that there is no conflict of interest. Contributor Information M. A. Lasitha Perera, General Psychiatry, National Institute of Mental Health, Sri Lanka. Jegan Yogaratnam, General Psychiatry, National Institute of Mental Health, Angoda, Sri Lanka.
Studies have unequivocally documented the occurrence of a cannabis dependence syndrome by demonstrating Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical that cannabis has reinforcing selleck chemical properties in nonhuman primates and that abstinence from the drug causes withdrawal in humans [Tanda and Goldberg, 2003; Fattore et al. 2008]. This withdrawal syndrome can last from 1 to 3 weeks after cannabis cessation [Budney and Hughes, 2006]. The risk of relapse after a period of abstinence is significant [Perkonigg Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical et al. 2008]. Haney and colleagues have demonstrated that Oral Delta-9-THC

seemed to ameliorate substantially symptoms of cannabis withdrawal and could decrease physiological and subjective effects of cannabis withdrawal [Haney et al. 2010]. Other treatments such as clonidine and rimonabant have also been demonstrated to decrease physiological and subjective effects, but none of these treatments have been successful in Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical treating cannabis dependence or self-administration behavior [Hart, 2005]. Clinical studies have examined several treatment options and despite their limitations, they have suggested that treating cannabis withdrawal can improve the likelihood of prolonged abstinence [Clapper et al. 2009]. Nevertheless there is currently no recognized pharmacological

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical treatment for the management of withdrawal syndrome or relapse prevention in cannabis dependent patients and clinical research with GABA-B compounds is warranted given this important objective as stated by Vandrey and Haney [Vandrey and Haney, 2009]. Baclofen, a selective GABA-B Clinical Microbiology Reviews agonist, has already been studied for alcohol and cocaine withdrawal and relapse prevention [Addolorato et al. 2006; Shoptaw et al. 2003]. Its safety and tolerability have been confirmed in several studies [Addolorato et al. 2002; Stallings and Schrader, 2007] and the low potential for abuse of baclofen must be regarded as a major factor in pharmacological treatment of substance addiction [Addolorato et al. 2000]. Few data are available today regarding the use of baclofen in the treatment of cannabis dependence.