The remaining mixture was centrifuged at 35,860 × g for 1 h, and then, the suspended solution was removed. Resuspension of the bottom layer provided the initial MNP solution. This was then centrifuged at 2,767 × g, 11,068 × g, and 24,903 × g for 1 h, with the mTOR inhibitor bottom layer collected as groups A, B, and C, respectively. The first suspended solution remaining after centrifugation at 24,903 × g was labeled as group D. The MNPs of group C were selected for SiO2 coating for further applications. SiO2 coating was done as follows: the MNPs of group C were stabilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone
(PVP) to disperse them homogeneously, and then, tetraethoxysilane solution was polymerized on the surface of PVP-stabilized CoF2O4 MNPs by adding ammonia solution as a catalyst to form SiO2 coating on the MNPs. The volume ratio of the ammonia solution was 4.2% to control the SiO2 shell thickness of the final SiO2-coated MNPs in this process. MNP characterization The crystal shapes www.selleckchem.com/products/wnt-c59-c59.html and structures of the synthesized MNPs in each group, in addition to the SiO2-coated MNPs, were measured and confirmed by TEM (Tecnai G2 F30, FEI, Hillsboro, OR, USA) and XRD (XPERT MPD, Philips, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). The XRD patterns were compared with a typical XRD spectrum of a CoFe2O4 crystal. The hydrodynamic diameter distribution of the particles was measured by DLS (UPA-150l, Microtrac,
Montgomeryville, PA, USA), and the size distribution was verified from the TEM images. In order to compare T2 relaxivities (r 2) of the four groups and the SiO2-coated MNPs, the T2 relaxation times were measured against the Co/Fe concentration in a range below 1 mM Fe using a spin-echo pulse sequence (multi-spin multi-echo) on a 4.7-T animal MRI system (Biospec 47/40; Bruker, Karlsruhe, Germany). The amount of Co/Fe in each group was measured using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry system (Optima 4300DV, PerkinElmer, Waltham, MA, USA). For the MRI experiment, the MNPs were sampled at four different Co/Fe concentrations of 1.0, 0.75, 0.5, and 0.25 mM Co/Fe in distilled water Interleukin-2 receptor in 250-μl microtubes. The MRI parameters
used were as follows: TE/TR = 10/10,000 ms, number of scans = 2, slice thickness = 1 mm, FOV = 5 × 5 cm2, number of slices = 1. T2 contrast differences depending on Fe concentration for the separated groups were also compared in T2-W MR images. Results and discussion The MNPs synthesized by the coprecipitation method were found to have an extremely broad size distribution . This characteristic would likely result in nonuniform contrast in MR images. The purpose of the present study was to overcome this limitation by separating the different sizes of particles by centrifugation. After the initial removal of aggregates, the nanoparticles were sequentially centrifuged at speeds 2,767 × g, 11,068 × g, 24,903 × g, and 35,860 × g, producing groups A, B, C, and D, respectively.