4 ± 0.1. In addition, 90% of the nanocapsules (D0.9) presented diameters smaller than 124 ± 5 nm. In evaluating certain process variables (homogenisation pressure, number of cycles and organic/aqueous phase relation), Tan and Nakajima (2005) produced β-carotene nanodispersions by solvent displacement method using Tween 20 as emulsifier, with mean diameters (D4,3) varying from 60 to 135 nm and with span values varying from 0.4 to 0.7. Ribeiro et al. (2008) used food grade materials, gelatin and Tween 20 to produce polymeric nanodispersions of β-carotene with mean diameters (D3,2) ranging from 74 to 77 nm. The dynamic light scattering analyses
also demonstrated that the bixin nanocapsules presented a buy GSK J4 monomodal distribution with a mean diameter (z-diameter) of 190 ± 9 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.098 ± 0.03. click here The PDI values ranging from 0.1 to 0.25 indicates a narrow size distribution while a PDI greater than 0.5 is related to a broad distribution ( Wu, Zhang, & Watanabe, 2011). Paese et al. (2009) produced nanocapsules with mean diameters (z-average) of 247 ± 4 nm and a polydispersity index lower than 0.2. Yuan et al. (2008), applied the technique of high pressure homogenisation and studied the influence of emulsifier type and concentration, homogenisation pressure, temperature and number of cycles, produced β-carotene nanoemulsions with
diameters ranging from 132 to 184 nm (determined by DLS). An unstable formulation of nanoparticles can form agglomerates and represent a risk to the health in the case of intravenous administration of a drug-loaded nanoparticle suspension, leading to blockage and embolism. The nanoparticle size control is a parameter that must be ensured during storage, since one form to verify if a nanoparticle formulation is physically stable is the periodic determination Dichloromethane dehalogenase of the mean
diameter (Wu et al., 2011). In the present work, no significant differences were observed (p < 0.05) between the volume-weighted diameters (D4.3) determined by number and volume (via LD) and the mean diameters (z-diameter) measured by DLS. The bixin nanocapsules were considered stable because they did not exhibit any evidence of coalescence, creaming or flocculation in either analysis (LD or DLS) over 119 days of storage at 25 °C. These mechanisms of emulsion instability may be verified by an increase in mean particle diameter because the particles are in continual motion and collide with one another under normal conditions. Silva et al. (2011) produced β-carotene nanoemulsions distributed in a monomodal profile with surface-weighted mean diameter (D3,2) of 9.24 ± 0.16 nm and 228.63 ± 0.01 nm. The authors verified the increase in the size of nanoemulsions in two formulations, which varied from 9.24 ± 0.16 to 94.