However, opportunities exist for the interdisciplinary team, including medical, surgical, and radiation oncologists; psychiatrists; and primary care physicians, to intervene throughout the continuum of cancer care to promote Proteasome inhibitor survival and quality of life. This review summarizes data on overall and cancer-specific mortality for individuals with schizophrenia and reviews specific disparities across the cancer care continuum of screening, diagnosis, treatment, and end-of-life care. Using a case, the authors illustrate clinical challenges for this population including communication, informed consent, and risk of suicide, and provide suggestions for care. Finally, recommendations
for research to address the disparities in cancer care for individuals with schizophrenia are discussed. Despite significant challenges, with collaboration XMU-MP-1 between oncology and mental health teams, individuals with schizophrenia can receive high-quality cancer care. Cancer 2014; 120: 323-34. (C) 2013 American Cancer Society.”
“Aims Oestrogen has been speculated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of primary
biliary cirrhosis (PBC), which mainly affects middle-aged and old-aged females because biliary epithelial cells (BECs) are known to express oestrogen receptors (ERs). Oestrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are constitutively active without oestrogen and competitively inhibit the ER-dependent effects of oestrogen. We clarified the effects of oestrogen and
the significance of ERRs along with their association with the pathogenesis of cholangiopathy in PBC. Methods We investigated the expression of ERs and ERRs and the apoptosis-related cell kinetics in BECs using cultured human BECs and human liver specimens. Results Although cultured human BECs and the interlobular bile ducts Pevonedistat in the liver expressed ER beta, in cultured BECs, oestrogen treatment did not induce significant cell proliferation but increased the expression of a negative cell proliferation regulator (14-3-3s protein). The cultured BECs constantly expressed ERR alpha and ERR., and oestrogen downregulated the ERR. expression. Furthermore, the ERR. expression was determined in the intrahepatic bile ducts and was stronger in the middle-aged and old-aged females, particularly those with PBC, than in the younger females. The ERR. ligand activated a transcription factor, SP1, and enhanced the expression of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family molecules and Bcl-2 inhibitor-induced apoptosis in cultured BECs. Conclusions Although oestrogen downregulates the ERR. expression, the increased ERR. expression under oestrogen-deficient conditions increases the susceptibility to Bcl-2 family-mediated apoptosis in cultured human BECs of females, particularly those with PBC. Understanding the oestrogen-mediated cell kinetics is important for elucidating the pathogenesis of cholangiopathy in PBC.