Cognitive functioning was measured using the mini-mental state examination (MMSE, range 0–30) . Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D, range 0–60). Fear of falling was measured using a modified version of the Falls Efficacy Scale (FES) . The participants reported how concerned (0 = not concerned, 3 = very concerned) about falling they were while carrying out ten activities learn more of daily living (range
0–30). Statistics Differences in baseline characteristics for nonfallers, occasional fallers, and recurrent fallers and were tested using analysis of variance for normally distributed continuous variables, Kruskall–Wallis tests for skewed continuous variables, and Chi-squared tests for dichotomous variables. To examine the association between
INCB28060 manufacturer physical activity and time to first and recurrent falls, hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model. The analyses were performed univariately and with adjustment for age, sex, chronic diseases, BMI, MMSE, depressive symptoms, psychotropic medication, and fear of falling. First, a quadratic term of physical activity (physical activity2) was included to assess a potential nonlinear relationship. Second, to test effect modification by Selleck SCH727965 physical performance (physical activity × physical performance) and functional limitations (physical activity × functional limitations), interaction terms were included in separate models. No colinearity between physical activity and physical performance or functional limitations was found (r < 0.21). To test for nonlinearity and interaction, the difference in −2 log likelihood was tested using Chi2-test (p < 0.10). Third, if an interaction term was significant, analyses were stratified by physical performance
4��8C or functional limitations. P values were based on two-sided tests and were considered statistically significant at p < 0.05. All analyses were conducted in 2008/2009 using SPSS software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, version 15.0.2). Results As compared with responders, nonresponders were older, had lower BMI, more health problems, poorer cognitive functioning, more fear of falling, poorer physical performance, were less active (p for all characteristics ≤ 0.01), and tended to be more often recurrent fallers (p = 0.08). In total, 1,337 participants were included, of whom 167 participants (12%) dropped out during 3 years of follow-up. During 3 years, 740 participants (55.3%) reported at least one fall. Table 1 shows the baseline characteristics for nonfallers (n = 597), occasional fallers (n = 410), and recurrent fallers (n = 330). The three groups clearly differ in all baseline characteristics. The median physical activity in the total sample was 459 min/day × MET (interquartile range = 259–703).