Affective/anxiety symptoms have been only rarely recorded. Extrapyramidal Duvelisib inhibitor symptoms have been assessed mostly with the Simpson Angus scale (SAS), more frequently in combination with the abnormal involuntary movement scale (AIMS) and Barnes akathisia scale (BARS) recently. Non-motor adverse effects have been typically reported without a usage
of formal rating scales. Depending on the interest of investigation, other critical domains of the illness including functioning, cognition and subjective perspectives have been sporadically reported through the rating scales. The assessment scales were similarly utilized across the years, except for a numerical rise in scale utilization to rate the latter three domains in 2009. Conclusions: The PANSS
and set of AIMS, BARS and SAS, which are expected to take about 60 minutes to complete, are frequently utilized and may be regarded as a ‘standard’ in clinical trials for schizophrenia. Clinical implication of the findings and practical challenges with the existing scales are discussed. Psychopharmacology BKM120 price Bulletin. 2011;44(1):18-31.”
“Blepharo-Cheilo-Dontic (BCD) syndrome is a rare condition characterised by abnormalities of the eyelid lip and teeth. A 12-year-old girl with BCD syndrome presented at the Dental Hospital following referral from the multi-disciplinary cleft lip and palate clinic. She had skeletal Class III relation, with left posterior cross bite, occlusal contacts on the second permanent molars with poor oral hygiene. The permanent units missing were 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 21, 22, 25, in the upper arch and 35, 34, 32 44 and 45 in the lower arch. This patient presented a complex aesthetic problem, which through multidisciplinary care resulted in a satisfactory aesthetic outcome. In this case report we present Autophagy animal study the clinical management and the role of the overdenture in her dental management.”
“BACKGROUND: The use of extracorporeal life support in trauma casualties is limited by concerns regarding
hemorrhage, particularly in the presence of traumatic brain injury (TBI). We report the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)/interventional lung assist (iLA) as salvage therapy in trauma patients. High-flow technique without anticoagulation was used in patients with coagulopathy or TBI. METHODS: Data were collected from all adult trauma patients referred to one center for ECMO/iLA treatment owing to severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. RESULTS: Ten casualties had a mean (SD) Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 50.3 (10.5) (mean [SD] age, 29.8 [7.7] years; 60% male) and were supported 9.5 (4.5) days on ECMO (n = 5) and 7.6 (6.5) days on iLA (n = 5). All experienced blunt injury with severe chest injuries, including one cardiac perforation. Most were coagulopathic before initiation of ECMO/iLA support.
HPLC-DAD was used to measure the model substrates and metabolites.
Inhibition of rat CYP isoforms (IC50) by celastrol in potency order was CYP2C11 (10.2 mu M) > CYP3A2 (23.2 mu M) > CYP1A2 (52.8 mu M) > CYP2E1 (74.2 mu M) > CYP2D6 (76.4 mu M). Enzyme kinetic studies showed that the celastrol was not only a competitive inhibitor of CYP1A2 and 2C11, but also a mixed-type inhibitor of CYP3A2, with K-1 of 39.2 mu M, 7.05 mu M and 14.2 mu M, respectively. The data indicate that celastrol inhibited the metabolism of CYP1A2, 2C and 3A substrates in rat liver in vitro with a different mode of inhibition. These in vitro studies of celastrol with CYP isoforms may be helpful for the development and application of celastrol
as a promising GSK3326595 inhibitor anti-cancer agent. Further systematic studies in humans in vitro and in vivo are needed to identify the interactions of celastrol with cytochrome P450s. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“In the present study, nitrogen (N) starvation for 8 days significantly inhibited the growth of wheat seedlings as manifested by decreased plant height, shoot fresh weight, and shoot dry weight, although it stimulated root growth. The nitrate and protein contents were markedly reduced and the oxidative stress marker, malondialdehyde content, was markedly increased in the leaves and roots of wheat seedlings during N starvation. The genes encoding the
NRT1 and NRT2 families Selleck PXD101 in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were identified, and their transcription levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in the roots of N-starved wheat seedlings. N starvation significantly enhanced the transcription levels of TaNRT1.1 at 2 and 4 days; TaNRT1.3 at 2, 4, and 6 days; TaNRT1.4 at 2 days; TaNRT1.7 and TaNRT1.8 at 2 days; TaNRT2.1 and TaNRT2.2 at 2 days; and TaNRT2.3 at 2 and 4 days. However, the TaNRT1.5 and TaNRT2.4 genes were greatly inhibited at all sampling time points after N starvation, whereas the TaNRT1.2 and TaNRT2.5 genes were dramatically induced. The functions of these transporters selleck inhibitor in N starvation of wheat seedlings based on these expression profiles are herein discussed.”
“In bacteria, foreign nucleic acids are silenced by clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) CRISPR-associated (Gas) systems. Bacterial type II CRISPR systems have been adapted to create guide RNAs that direct site-specific DNA cleavage by the Cas9 endonuclease in cultured cells. Here we show that the CRISPR-Cas system functions in vivo to induce targeted genetic modifications in zebrafish embryos with efficiencies similar to those obtained using zinc finger nucleases and transcription activator like effector nucleases.
\n\nOBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review to examine longitudinal studies of cognitive and/or motor outcome after cardiac surgery during early infancy.\n\nMETHODS: Electronic searches were performed in Medline, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (Cinahl), and Embase (1998-2008). The search strategy yielded SBE-β-CD order 327 articles, of which 65 were reviewed. Eight cohorts provided prospective data
regarding the cognitive and/or motor outcome of infants who had undergone surgery for congenital heart disease before 6 months of age. Two authors, Ms Snookes and Dr Gunn, independently extracted data and presented results according to 3 subgroups for age of follow-up: early development (1 to <3 years); preschool age (3-5 TPCA-1 order years); and school age (>5 to 17 years). Weighted analysis was undertaken to pool the results of studies when appropriate.\n\nRESULTS: All of the identified studies reported results of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development for children
younger than the age of 3. Outcome data as reported by the Bayley Scales were combined for infants assessed at 1 year of age, revealing a weighted mean Mental Development Index of 90.3 (95% confidence interval: 88.9-91.6) and Psychomotor Development Index of 78.1 (95% confidence interval: 76.4-79.7). Additional analysis was limited by a lack of data at preschool and school age.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: With this review we identified a limited number of prospective studies that systematically addressed outcome in patients at the highest risk. These studies consistently revealed cognitive and motor delay in children after cardiac surgery during early infancy. Additional investigation is required to ascertain the consequences of such impairment during later childhood and into adult life. Pediatrics 2010;
“CE is gaining great popularity as a well-established separation technique for many fields such as pharmaceutical research, clinical application, environmental monitoring, and food analysis, owing to its high resolving power, rapidity, and small amount of samples and reagents required. However, the sensitivity in CE analysis is still considered as being inferior to that in HPLC see more analysis. Diverse enrichment methods and techniques have been increasingly developed for overcoming this issue. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in enrichment techniques containing off-line preconcentration (sample preparation) and on-line concentration (sample stacking) to enhancing sensitivity in CE for trace analysis over the last 5 years. Some relatively new cleanup and preconcentration methods involving the use of dispersive liquidliquid microextraction, supercritical fluid extraction, matrix solid-phase dispersion, etc., and the continued use and improvement of conventional SPE, have been comprehensively reviewed and proved effective preconcentration alternatives for liquid, semisolid, and solid samples.
“Stents have come to be well-known devices and are being used widely in numerous branches of medicine. It is intriguing that the word “stent” actually
derives from the name of a dentist, Charles Stent, who developed a material to obtain dental impressions. There are numerous other theories as to the origin of the word and how its use has been extended to various fields in medicine. The origin of intravascular stenting took place as early as 1912, but it was not until Charles Dotter reinvented the wheel in 1969 that further development took place in the technology and techniques of stenting. Intracranial stenting is a relatively new and rapidly developing field that came into being not more than 12 years ago. The authors describe the life and works of Charles Stent, discuss the possible
origins of the word stent, see more and discuss how intravascular and intracranial stenting came into existence.”
“John Cunningham virus (JCV), the etiological agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), contains a hyper-variable non-coding control region usually detected in urine of healthy individuals as archetype form and in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of PML patients as rearranged form. We report a case of HIV-related PML with Selleckchem Daporinad clinical, immunological and virological data longitudinally collected. On admission (t0), after 8-week treatment with a rescue highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the patient showed a CSF-JCV load of 16,732 gEq/ml, undetectable HIV-RNA
and an increase of CD4+ cell count. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed PML-compatible lesions without contrast enhancement. We considered PML-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome as plausible because of the sudden onset of GNS-1480 clinical trial neurological symptoms after the effective HAART. An experimental JCV treatment with mefloquine and mirtazapine was added to steroid boli. Two weeks later (t1), motor function worsened and MRI showed expanded lesions with cytotoxic oedema. CSF JCV-DNA increased (26,263 gEq/ml) and JCV viremia was detected. After 4 weeks (t2), JCV was detected only in CSF (37,719 gEq/ml), and 8 weeks after admission (t3), JC viral load decreased in CSF and JCV viremia reappeared. The patient showed high level of immune activation both in peripheral blood and CSF. He died 4 weeks later. Considering disease progression, combined therapy failure and immune hyper-activation, we finally classified the case as classical PML. The archetype variant found in CSF at t0/t3 and a rearranged sequence detected at t1/t2 suggest that PML can develop from an archetype virus and that the appearance of rearranged genotypes contribute to faster disease progression.”
“Background and purpose It has been hypothesized that exposure to anaesthetic agents, some of which are chemically related to organic solvents, may affect the risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS).
“Previous caries experience correlates to future caries risk; thus, early identification of lesions has importance for risk assessment and management. In this study, we
aimed to determine if Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF) parametersarea (A [mm(2)]), fluorescence loss (F [%]), and Q [%xmm(2)]obtained by image analyses can predict lesion progression. We secured consent from 565 children (from 5-13 years old) and their parents/guardians Selleck Bafilomycin A1 and examined them at baseline and regular intervals over 48 months according to the International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICDAS), yearly radiographs, and QLF. QLF images from surfaces with ICDAS 0/1/2/3/4 at baseline that progressed (N = 2,191) to cavitation (ICDAS 5/6) or fillings and surfaces that did not progress to cavitation/fillings (N = 4,141) were analyzed independently for A, F, and Q. Linear mixed-effects models were used to compare means and slopes (changes over time) between surfaces that progressed and those that did not. QLF
A, F, and Q increased at see more a faster rate for surfaces that progressed than for surfaces that did not progress (p = .0001), regardless of type of surface or baseline ICDAS score. AUC for ICDAS ranged from 0.65 to 0.80, but adding QLF information improved AUC (0.82-0.87, p < .0005). We concluded that faster changes in QLF variables can indicate lesion progression toward cavitation and be more clinically relevant than actual QLF values.”
“Curves which belong to the class of the generalized Sturmian spirals and obey to the Elastica equation are studied. Analytical formulae for their para-metrizations and a few illustrative plots are presented.”
“The mechanism of yeast cell death induced by heat shock was found to be dependent on the intensity of heat exposure. Moderate (45A degrees C) heat shock strongly increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death. Pretreatment with cycloheximide (at 30A degrees C) suppressed cell death, but produced no effect on ROS production. The protective effect was absent if cycloheximide was added immediately before heat exposure and the cells were incubated
with the drug during the heat treatment and recovery period. The rate of ROS production and protective LCL161 manufacturer effect of cycloheximide on viability were significantly decreased in the case of severe (50A degrees C) heat shock. Treatment with cycloheximide at 39A degrees C inhibited the induction of Hsp104 synthesis and suppressed the development of induced thermotolerance to severe shock (50A degrees C), but it had no effect on induced thermotolerance to moderate (45A degrees C) heat shock. At the same time, Hsp104 effectively protected cells from death independently of the intensity of heat exposure. These data indicate that moderate heat shock induced programmed cell death in the yeast cells, and cycloheximide suppressed this process by inhibiting general synthesis of proteins.
Early graft function of all kidneys was assessed thereafter by warm reperfusion in vitro (n = 6, respectively). Renal function upon reperfusion was
significantly enhanced by HR+O(2) with more than threefold increase in renal clearances of creatinine and urea. HR+O(2) also led to significantly higher urinary flow rates and abrogated the activation of caspase 3. By contrast, HR-O(2) was far less effective and only resulted in minor differences compared to control. It is derived from the present data that initial graft function can be significantly improved by 2 h of oxygenated machine perfusion after arrival of the preserved organ in the transplantation clinic.”
“In this paper, we shall provide simple methods where nonstatisticians can evaluate sample size calculations for most large simple trials, as an important part of the peer review process, whether a grant, an Selleckchem PXD101 Institutional Review Board review, an internal scientific review committee, or a journal referee. Through the methods of the paper, not
only can readers determine if there is a major disparity, BMN 673 in vivo but they can readily determine the correct sample size. It will be of comfort to find in most cases that the sample size computation is correct, but the implications can be major for the minority where serious errors occur. We shall provide three real examples, one where the sample size need was seriously overestimated, one (HIP PRO-test of a device to prevent hip fractures) where the sample size need was dramatically underestimated, and one where the sample size was correct. The HIP PRO case is especially troubling as it went through an NIH study section and two peer reviewed journal reports without anyone catching
this sample size error of a factor of more than five-fold.”
“Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is an important marker for the risk stratification of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated the prevalence of PAD in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with CAD and the relationship between ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) and CAD severity. A total of 711 patients undergoing PCI for CAD from August 2009 to August 2011 were enrolled. PAD diagnosis was made using the ABPI. Selleck Navitoclax The prevalence of PAD was 12.8%. In PAD patients, mean values of right and left ABPI were 0.71 +/- 0.15 and 0.73 +/- 0.15. Patients with PAD had a higher prevalence of left main coronary disease (14.3% vs 5.8%, P = 0.003), more frequently had multivessel lesions (74.9% vs 52.1%, P < 0.001) and had higher SYNTAX score (18.2 +/- 12.3 vs 13.1 +/- 8.26, P = 0.002). Using multivariate analysis, we determined that left main CAD (OR, 2.954; 95% CI, 1.418-6.152, P = 0.004) and multivessel CAD (OR, 2.321; 95% CI, 1.363-3.953, P = 0.002) were both independently associated with PAD.
Results: The average incidence of NAS was 15%. The major clinical risk factor for the development of NAS was PSC in the recipient. The presence of the MMP-2 CT genotype in donor and/or recipient was associated with a significantly higher incidence
of NAS, up to 29% when both donor and recipient had the MMP-2 CT genotype (P = 0.003). In the multivariate analyses, pre-OLT PSC (hazard ratio 2.1, P = 0.02) and MMP-2 CT genotype (hazard ratio 3.5, P = 0.003) were found to be independent risk factors for the development of NAS after OLT. No obvious association was found between NAS and the MMP-9 genotype and serum levels of the MMPs. Conclusion: selleck chemicals MMP-2 CT genotype of donor and recipient is an independent risk factor, in addition to PSC, for the development of NAS after OLT.”
“Phase-change materials like thin films from the systems [Ge1-xPbx]Te and Ge[Te1-xSex] are of interest for data storage. For these compositions amorphous materials
can not be obtained by melt quenching. However, Suitable films can be obtained using RF sputtering. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) was used to densify the powders to obtain large targets. Synthesis conditions and characterisations of the targets are reported. Amorphous nano films were obtained using the sintered targets and characterised.”
“The objective of this study was to implement a low-cost airborne remote sensing system Selleckchem FK506 HDAC inhibitors in clinical trials to provide an alternative solution for remote sensing given the difficulty in obtaining cloud-free satellite scenes of the equatorial region. An inexpensive sensor, a Kodak DC 290 digital camera, was used, onboard a light aircraft, Cessna 172Q. The feasibility of using camera images for
remote sensing applications was tested for quantifying total suspended solids (TSS) from three estuaries located in the northern region of Peninsular Malaysia. The aircraft was flown at altitudes of 914.4 to 2438.4 m for digital image acquisition of the study areas. Water samples were collected simultaneously with the aircraft overpasses and their locations were determined by using a hand-held Global Positioning System (GPS). Oblique images were corrected for brightness variation. A simple relative atmospheric correction was performed on the multidate images. The captured colour images were then separated into three bands (red, green and blue) for multispectral analysis. The digital numbers (DNs) were extracted corresponding to the sea data locations for each band. A multiband regression algorithm was developed based on a reflectance model, which is a function of the inherent optical properties of water, and this in turn can be related to the concentration of the TSS. Data from different scenes were combined and then divided into two sets, one for calibration of the algorithm and the other for a validation analysis.
We speculate that the impact of p.L245F GS-9973 price on BRAF protein
function differs either qualitatively or quantitatively from those mutations associated with CFCS. (C) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Muramyl dipeptide (MDP), the NOD2 agonist, induces NF-kappa B and MAPK activation leading to the production of antimicrobial and proinflammatory molecules. MDP is internalized into acidified vesicles in macrophages. However, the endocytic mechanism of MDP uptake that induces NOD2 signaling is unknown. We now report the identification of an endocytosis pathway dependent on clathrin and dynamin that mediates MDP internalization and NOD2 activation. Intracellular MDP uptake was inhibited by chlorpromazine, a drug that disrupts clathrin-dependent endocytosis, but not by compounds that block pinocytosis or cellular entry via scavenger or mannose receptors. In contrast, MDP uptake and NOD2-dependent signaling were unimpaired in macrophages deficient in PepT1, a peptide transporter previously implicated in MDP internalization. Both chlorpromazine and knockdown of clathrin expression by RNA interference attenuated MDP-induced NF-kappa B and MAPK activation. Furthermore, MDP uptake and NOD2-dependent signaling Dactolisib research buy were impaired by inhibition of dynamin, a GTPase required for budding of clathrincoated vesicles from the plasma membrane. Finally, bafilomycin A, a specific inhibitor of the vacuolar
proton pump, blocked MDP accumulation in acidified vesicles and cytokine responses, suggesting that vacuolar maturation is important for MDP-induced NOD2 signaling. These studies provide evidence for a clathrin- and dynamin-dependent endocytosis pathway that mediates MDP uptake and NOD2 activation.
The Journal of Immunology, 2009, 182: 4321-4327.”
“Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify factors predicting growth and audiologic deterioration during follow-up (FU) in a wait and scan (W&S) policy of vestibular schwannomas (VSs) using a novel volumetric measuring tool. So far, only consecutive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is able to show growth objectively, and growth, combined with hearing function, generally dictates further intervention. Other factors predicting growth or hearing S63845 clinical trial deterioration would be invaluable and might ease clinical decision making.\n\nStudy Design: Retrospective case study.\n\nSetting: Tertiary referral center.\n\nPatients: Sixty-three patients diagnosed with VS at Maastricht University Medical Center between 2003 and 2008, with FU data available from 36 patients.\n\nIntervention(s): A W&S policy for unilateral VS with sequential contrast-enhanced T1- and T2-weighted MRI and audiograms during FU.\n\nMain Outcome Measure(s): 1. Patient and radiologic VS features potentially related to growth and auditory function during a W&S policy. 2. The correlation between increase in VS volume and audiologic deterioration during FU.
4% of the women reclassified to a different risk category. In conclusion, a hybrid 10-year absolute fracture risk assessment system based on combining FN and LS information is feasible. The improvement in fracture risk prediction is small but supports clinical interest in a system that integrates LS in fracture risk assessment. (c) 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.”
“Premise of study: Abscission zones (AZ) are sites where leaves and other organs are shed. Investigating the AZ by classical biochemical techniques is difficult due to its small size and because the surrounding tissue is not involved in abscission.
The goals of this study were to determine whether AZ cell walls are chemically unique from the other cells of the petiole, perhaps making them more susceptible to enzymatic degradation during abscission and to identify which cell wall polysaccharides are degraded during abscission.\n\nMethods: A battery of antibodies that recognize MRT67307 ic50 a large number of cell wall polysaccharide and glycoprotein epitopes was used to probe sections of the Impatiens leaf AZ at several time points in the abscission process.\n\nKey results: Prior to abscission, the walls
of the AZ cells were found to be similar in composition to the walls of the cells both proximal and distal to the AZ. Of all the epitopes monitored, only the highly de-esterified homogalacturonans (HG) of the middle lamellae were found to be reduced post-abscission and only at the plane of separation. LY2090314 nmr More highly esterified homogalacturonans, as well as other pectin and xyloglucan epitopes were not affected. Furthermore, cellulose, as detected by an endoglucanase-gold probe and cellulose-binding module staining, was unaffected, even on the walls of the cells facing the separation site.\n\nConclusions: In the leaf abscission zone of Impatiens, wall alterations during abscission are strictly limited to the plane of separation and involve only the loss of highly de-esterified pectins from the middle lamellae.”
“Three million people will reside in nursing homes (NH) in the United States, and
over 50% will experience some level of dementia by 2030. People with dementia become increasingly dependent on others buy MK-2206 to manage mealtime difficulties and oral intake as the disease progresses. The purpose of this review is to explore the state of the science related to assisted hand-feeding of people with dementia in the NH, identify gaps, and inform future policy. The review was conducted in 2010 and identified sources from journal articles, websites, and other related publications. Results are presented around key themes of characteristics, measurements, related factors, and interventions for alleviating mealtime difficulties in people with dementia. Though in the early stages, international and interdisciplinary research interest exists to understand mealtime difficulties and effective intervention strategies.
Vincristine formulated in the targeted liposomes showed significantly higher levels of cytotoxicity towards Raji cells than the nontargeted liposomal drug. Therapeutic experiments in SCID mice implanted with Raj] cells showed significantly prolonged survival time with targeted liposomal vincristine compared to either free VCR or vincristine formulated in nontargeted liposomes. These studies suggest the potential of the mBAFF-modified liposomal
drugs in targeted therapy of B-cell malignancies. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Neural circuits are shaped by experience in early postnatal life. Distinct GABAergic connections within visual cortex determine the timing of the critical period for CFTRinh-172 solubility dmso rewiring ocular dominance to establish visual acuity. We find that maturation of the parvalbumin (PV)-cell network that controls plasticity onset is regulated by a selective re-expression of the embryonic Otx2 homeoprotein. Visual experience promoted the accumulation of non-cell-autonomous Otx2 in PV-cells, and cortical infusion of exogenous Otx2 accelerated
both PV-cell development and critical period timing. Conversely, conditional removal of Otx2 from non-PV cells or from the visual pathway abolished plasticity. Thus, the experience-dependent transfer of a homeoprotein may establish the physiological milieu for postnatal plasticity of a neural circuit.”
“BACKGROUND: Selleck IPI 145 Translocated in liposarcoma-CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (TLS-CHOP)
(also known as FUS-DDIT3) chimeric oncoprotein is found in the majority of human myxoid liposarcoma (MLS), but its molecular function remains unclear.\n\nMETHODS: We knockdowned TLS-CHOP expression in MLS-derived cell lines by a specific small interfering RNA, and analysed the gene expression Quizartinib profiles with microarray.\n\nRESULTS: TLS-CHOP knockdown inhibited growth of MLS cells, and induced an anticancer cytokine, melanoma differentiation-associated gene 7 (MDA-7)/interleukin-24 (IL-24) expression. However, double knockdown of TLS-CHOP and MDA-7/IL-24 did not inhibit MLS cell growth.\n\nCONCLUSION: Repression of MDA-7/IL-24 expression by TLS-CHOP is required for MLS tumour growth, and TLS-CHOP may become a promising therapeutic target for MLS treatment. British Journal of Cancer (2012) 106, 1976-1979. doi:10.1038/bjc.2012.199 www.bjcancer.com Published online 15 May 2012 (C) 2012 Cancer Research UK”
“In the present study, we review available information on the relevance of Eph and ephrins in numerous processes occurring in the thymus that regulate not only T cell differentiation but also thymic epithelial cell (TEC) development and organization. Eph/ephrins are a large family of receptors and ligands involved in organogenesis and homeostasis of adult tissues.