Materials and methods: Twenty-one healthy male professional socce

Materials and methods: Twenty-one healthy male professional soccer players, average 23.2 (+/- 3.6) years old, without history of injury were

selected. The athletes were assessed in an isokinetic dynamometer at three angular velocities: 60, 180 and 300 degrees/s, and from this assessment the peak of torque and calculated H:Q ratio at the three velocities were obtained. The triple hop distance was also used to calculate the hopped distance in meters. Results: No significant difference was found between the lower extremities (dominant and non-dominant) (p = 0.23). Also, a weak relationship between extensor torque and functional test at the three velocities was observed (Dominant: 60 degrees/s_r = 0.38; 180 find more degrees/s_r = 0.43*; 300 degrees/s_r = 0.26. Non dominant: 60 degrees/s_r = 0.36; 180 degrees/s_r = 0.30; 300 degrees/s_r = 0.48*) (*p <= 0.05). PP2 cost Similar results were found for H:Q ratio (Dominant: 60_r = 0.01; 180_r = 0.11; 300_r = -0.02. Non-dominant: 60_r = -0.20; 180_r = -0.15;

300_r = -0.18). Conclusion: Due to a weak relationship, the isokinetic test cannot be replaced by the triple hop distance (functional test) for muscular function assessment.”
“After modeling the large-scale climate response patterns of leaf unfolding, leaf coloring and growing season length of evergreen and deciduous French temperate trees, we predicted the effects of eight future climate scenarios on phenological events. We used the ground observations

from 103 temperate forests (10 species and 3,708 trees) from the French Renecofor Network and for the period 1997-2006. We applied RandomForest algorithms to predict phenological events from climatic Crenigacestat and ecological variables. With the resulting models, we drew maps of phenological events throughout France under present climate and under two climatic change scenarios (A2, B2) and four global circulation models (HadCM3, CGCM2, CSIRO2 and PCM). We compared current observations and predicted values for the periods 2041-2070 and 2071-2100. On average, spring development of oaks precedes that of beech, which precedes that of conifers. Annual cycles in budburst and leaf coloring are highly correlated with January, March-April and October-November weather conditions through temperature, global solar radiation or potential evapotranspiration depending on species. At the end of the twenty-first century, each model predicts earlier budburst (mean: 7 days) and later leaf coloring (mean: 13 days) leading to an average increase in the growing season of about 20 days (for oaks and beech stands). The A2-HadCM3 hypothesis leads to an increase of up to 30 days in many areas.

An 18- to 30-year-old, 8/8 allele-matched donor (excluding allele

An 18- to 30-year-old, 8/8 allele-matched donor (excluding allele matching at DQB1) or for many teams 10/10 allele-matched donor; or a 4 out of 6 (considering Ag HLA-A, -B and

allelic typing of DRB1) CB unit containing more than 3.0 x 10(7) nuclear cells is considered by most institutions. The choice should be made on the basis of urgency. If a donor or a CB unit is not found within an appropriate time frame, generally less than 3 months after obtention of remission, haploidentical HSCT should be offered. Some institutions consider haploidentical HSCT the second therapeutic option when a matched donor is Blebbistatin ic50 not available.”
“The administration of l-DOPA is the standard treatment for Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the symptomatic relief provided by long-term administration may be compromised by l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) that presents as adverse fluctuations in motor responsiveness and progressive loss of motor control. In the later stages of PD, raphestriatal serotonin neurons compensate for the loss of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons by converting and releasing DA derived from exogenous l-DOPA. Since the serotonin system does not have an autoregulatory mechanism for

DA, raphe-mediated striatal DA release may fluctuate dramatically and precede the development of LID. The 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats were treated with l-DOPA (6 mg/kg) and benserazide (15 mg/kg) daily for 3 weeks to allow for BMS-754807 mw the development of abnormal find more involuntary movement score (AIMs). In rats with LID, chronic treatment with l-DOPA increased striatal DA levels compared with control rats. We also observed a relative increase in the expression of striatal l-amino-acid decarboxylase (AADC) in LID rats, even though tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression

did not increase. The administration of l-DOPA also increased striatal serotonin immunoreactivity in LID rats compared to control rats. Striatal DA and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels were negatively correlated in l-DOPA-treated rats. These results of this study reveal that 5-HT contributes to LID. Striatal DA positively influences LID, while 5-HT is negatively associated with LID. Finally, we suggest that by strategic modification of the serotonin system it may be possible to attenuate the adverse effects of chronic l-DOPA therapy in PD patients.”
“Tumor stem cells have emerged as the new targets for anti-cancer therapy, besides tumor cells themselves. To eradicate both breast cancer cells and breast cancer stem cells which can not be eliminated by the conventional chemotherapy, octreotide (Oct)-modified paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded PEG-b-PCL polymeric micelles (Oct-M-PTX) and salinomycin (SAL)-loaded PEG-b-PCL polymeric micelles (M-SAL) were developed and investigated in combination.

“The accuracy, precision, and robustness of the cutin, aci

“The accuracy, precision, and robustness of the cutin, acid detergent lignin (ADL), chromic oxide, and total feces collection to estimate the apparent digestibility of the organic matter of diets for equines were evaluated. For such, four male horses were used. They averaged 10 month-old and 197kg (170 to 216kg). The experiment was carried out in four periods Vorinostat with duration of eleven days each, being the first eight for adaptation to the diets and the three subsequent to obtain the results. The experimental design was a 4×4 latin square. The balance of the coefficients of digestibility of the organic matter for the markers was made by means of the

bias. The accuracy and the precision were determined by the comparison of the predicted data with the observed ones, and the robustness by the comparison of the bias with other studied factors. The cutin did not show efficient as an internal marker, therefore it overestimated the apparent digestibility of the organic matter and showed to be less accurate and precise. The chromic oxide presented low fecal recovery and underestimated the apparent digestibility of the organic matter, even though it was more precise. The acid detergent lignin was the marker that got the best fecal recovery and was the most accurate, therefore, the most efficient marker.”
“The main purpose

of this investigation Alisertib cost selleck products was to monitor ambient air particles and metallic elements (Cr, Cu and Pb) in total suspended particulates (TSP) concentration, dry deposition. Furthermore, the calculated/measured dry deposition flux ratios of ambient air particles and metallic elements (Cr, Cu and Pb) were evaluated using three dry deposition models at five characteristic sampling sites for the 2009-2010. The results show that the average concentrations of metallic elements Cr, Cu and Pb in TSP

were highest at Bei-shi (suburban/coastal) and the lowest at Gao-mei (wetland) among the five characteristic sampling sites during the years 2009-2010. This study also shows that the mean rates of dry deposition of metallic elements Cr and Cu were highest at Quan-xing (industrial) and lowest at Bei-shi (suburban/coastal) and Chang-hua (downtown). Finally, the Noll and Fang model was found to yield better predictions of the dry deposition of ambient air particles and metallic elements Cr and Cu than any of the other deposition models.”
“The anatomical and ecological characteristics of 7 Centaurea L. s. l. taxa (C. urvillei DC. ssp. stepposa Wagenitz, C. pseudoreflexa Hayek, C. simplicicaulis Boiss. & Huet, C. pecho Albow, C. hypoleuca DC., C. cheiranthifolia Willd.var. purpurascens (DC.) Wagenitz, C. woronowii Bornm.), which three of them are endemic (C. pseudoreflexa, C. pecho, C. woronowii) to Turkey has been carried out.

A cumulative increase of nine stage IB+ cancers corresponds to an

A cumulative increase of nine stage IB+ cancers corresponds to an annual rate increase of 0.9 per 100 000 women aged 20-29 years. Conclusions: MK-8931 in vitro To prevent one frank invasive cancer, one would need to do between 12 500 and 40 000 additional screening tests in the age group

20-24 years and treat between 300 and 900 women.”
“Metformin is the most widely prescribed oral anti-diabetic agent. Recently, we have shown that low metformin concentrations found in the portal vein suppress glucose production in hepatocytes through activation of AMPK. Moreover, low concentrations of metformin were found to activate AMPK by increasing the phosphorylation of AMPK alpha at Thr-172. However, the mechanism underlying the increase in AMPK alpha phosphorylation at Thr-172 and activation by metformin remains unknown. In the current study, we find that low concentrations of metformin promote the formation of the AMPK alpha beta gamma complex, resulting in

an increase in net phosphorylation of the AMPK alpha catalytic subunit at Thr-172 by augmenting phosphorylation by LKB1 and antagonizing dephosphorylation by PP2C.”
“We hypothesized that preadipocyte differentiation would be depressed by differentiating myoblasts, whereas preadipocytes would HIF-1 pathway promote adipogenic gene expression in myoblasts in a co-culture system. We also determined the effects of arginine, a biological precursor of nitric oxide, and/or trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CIA) on adipogenic gene expression during differentiation of bovine preadipocytes and myoblasts. Bovine semimembranosus satellite cells (BSC) and subcutaneous preadipocytes were isolated from crossbred steers and cultured with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS)/Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium (DMEM) and 1% antibiotics during the 3-day proliferation period. After proliferation, BSC and preadipocytes were treated for 3 days with 3% horse serum/DMEM and 5% check details FBS/DMEM with antibiotics, respectively. Media also contained 100 mu M oleic acid, 10 mu g/ml insulin, 1 mu g/ml pioglitazone and 1 mu g/ml dexamethasone. Subsequently, the differentiating myoblasts and adipocytes were cultured in their respective media with 5 mM arginine and/or

40 mu M trans-10, cis-12 CIA for 4 days. Finally, myoblasts and adipocytes were single- or co-cultured for 2 h singly or in combination. Arginine stimulated SCD gene expression, whereas CIA depressed SCD gene expression in adipocytes and myoblasts (P=.002). Co-culture of adipocytes and myoblasts elicited an increase in C/EBP beta and PPAR gamma gene expression in differentiated myoblasts (P <=.01) and an increase in GPR43 gene expression in adipocytes (P=.01). Expression of AMPK alpha and CPT1 beta was unaffected by co-culture, although SCD gene expression tended (P=.12) to be depressed by co-culture. These experiments demonstrated that co-culture of adipocytes with myoblasts increased adipogenic gene expression in the myoblastic cells. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

01) Some embedded microcalcifications in the tomosynthesis phant

01). Some embedded microcalcifications in the tomosynthesis phantoms were visible only in the scatter-corrected reconstructions. The visibility of the findings in two patient images was also improved by the application of the scatter correction algorithm. The MTF of the images did not change after application of the scatter correction algorithm, indicating that

spatial resolution was not adversely affected.\n\nConclusions: Our software-based scatter correction algorithm exhibits great potential in improving the image quality of DBT acquisitions of both phantoms and patients. The proposed algorithm does not require a time-consuming MC simulation for each specific case to CYT387 mouse be corrected, making it applicable in the clinical realm. (C) 2011 American Association of Physicists in Medicine. [DOI: 10.1118/1.3659703]“
“Aging hearts are known to have diminished capacity PRIMA-1MET in vitro to be protected

against reoxygenation ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury provided by various cardioprotective regimens. In search of a more successful regimen, we have studied the response of aged hearts to preconditioning (PC) and postconditioning (POST) elicited by sphingosine or sphingosine 1-phosphate treatment. An ex vivo rat heart model was used to study the ability of PC and POST to protect old hearts (27 month) against I/R injury generated by 40 minutes (min) of index ischemia followed by 40 min of reperfusion. The response to ischemic PC was reduced in 27 month old hearts relative to

3-6 month (young) hearts as noted by a poor recovery of left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) upon reperfusion (45% vs. 74% in young hearts) and a large infarct size after 40 min of reperfusion (37% versus 8% in young hearts). PC with sphingosine I-phosphate (SIP) was also poor in old hearts yielding only 49% recovery of LVDP and a 27% infarct size. In contrast, PC with sphingosine was unaffected by aging; the 78% recovery of LVDP and 8% infarct size were not different from young hearts. Ischemic POST was less affected by aging than ischemic PC, but the old hearts still experienced infarct sizes of 28%. POST of old hearts with SIP was also associated with selleck products a substantial infarct size (24%). However, POST of old hearts with sphingosine was superior to the other forms of POST in that it reduced the infarct size to 12%. SIP levels were found to be lower in old hearts which may contribute to the decreased effectiveness of ischemic PC and POST. Further, phospho-Akt levels and distribution were altered in response to cardioprotection in the old hearts. In conclusion, POST was less affected by aging than PC; and sphingosine is a uniquely effective agent for both PC and POST of aging hearts.”
“Objective: To assess the association between recent cigarette smoking (CS) in female and male partners and assisted reproduction technology (ART) outcomes.\n\nDesign: Cohort prospective study.\n\nSetting: University ART program in Chile.

Procedural success rate, STR, corrected TIMI flame count, and are

Procedural success rate, STR, corrected TIMI flame count, and area under the curve of CK-MB and cTnI measurements after the procedure

were similar between patients with high collateralization and those with low collateralization (for all comparisons P>0.05). There were no differences in left ventricular ejection fraction and rates of MACE at 6 months according to baseline angiographic collaterals to occluded IRA.\n\nConclusions In patients with acute STEMI undergoing primary PCI within 12 hours of symptom-onset, coronary collateralization to the occluded IRA was influenced by clinical and angiographic features. Early recruitment of collaterals limits infarct size at baseline, but has no significant impact on myocardial reperfusion after the procedure and subsequent left ventricular function and clinical outcomes.”
“Background & aims: Low handgrip strength by dynamometry is associated with increased postoperative selleck chemical morbidity, PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 ic50 higher mortality and reduced quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of four algorithms in diagnosing malnutrition by measuring handgrip strength.\n\nMethods: We included 504 consecutive preoperative outpatients. Reference standard for malnutrition was defined based on percentage involuntary weight loss and BMI. Diagnostic characteristics of the handgrip strength algorithms (Alvares-da-Silva, Klidjian, Matos,

Webb) were expressed by sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, false positive and negative rate.\n\nResults: The prevalence of malnutrition was 5.8%. Although Klidjian showed the highest sensitivity (79%, 95% Cl 62%-90%), 6 out of 29 malnourished patients were falsely identified Selleck PP2 as well-nourished (false positive rate 21%, 95% Cl 9%-38%). In contrast, this algorithm showed the lowest positive predictive value (8%, 95% Cl 5%-13%). Matos presented the highest positive predictive value; the post-test probability increased to 13% (95% Cl 8%-20%). The 1-minus negative predictive value ranged between 3% and 5% for all algorithms.\n\nConclusions: None of the algorithms derived from handgrip strength

measurements was found to have a diagnostic accuracy good enough to introduce handgrip strength as a systematic institutional screening tool to detect malnutrition in individual adult preoperative elective outpatients. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.”
“We present time domain 3-D wake field calculations based on Scattered-field Time Domain Boundary Element Method (S-TDBEM), which is retarded Kirchhoff’s boundary integral equations of scattered electromagnetic fields formulated on interior region problem and has no numerical dispersion in all spatial direction. We propose two main types of S-TDBEM schemes: full 3-D scheme for general 3-D geometries and a so-called 2.

These findings are consistent with the notion that GnRH cells are

These findings are consistent with the notion that GnRH cells are capable of intrinsic circadian cycles that may be

fundamental for coordinating daily changes in sensitivity to signals impacting the reproductive axis. Copyright (C) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Background: Measuring satisfaction with treatment has proved useful to ascertain the treatment features that are most important to the patients, and to explain increased treatment compliance. However, there are few studies that relate satisfaction to other clinical Torin 2 concentration or self-perceived health status indicators. Recent studies have shown the close relationship between satisfaction with treatment, treatment compliance, and effectiveness. This study attempts to design and validate a scale to evaluate satisfaction with antidepressant drug therapy, assess treatment compliance (self-reported, validated

questionnaire, drug accountability and electronic monitorization system), assess efficacy in reducing depressive symptoms and safety in patients who initiate antidepressant drug therapy, as well as to establish predictors of satisfaction, compliance and effectiveness with these drugs.\n\nMethods/design: This is an observational longitudinal study with a cohort of adults initiating treatment with antidepressant drugs. A multi-centre Buparlisib study will be performed in which 20 Primary Care practices from Castilla-La Mancha are expected to participate. An initial interview and follow-up visits at 15 days, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months will be conducted with all study participants. 706 subjects will be studied (95% confidence interval, precision +/- 3%, expected rate of non-compliance 50%, expected non-responders and lost to follow up rate 15%). The following measurements will be performed: development and validation of a scale of satisfaction with antidepressant

therapy, participant and antidepressant characteristics, treatment compliance check details evaluation (Haynes-Sackett Test, Morisky-Green Test, drug accountability and Medication Event Monitoring System), depression symptom reduction (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale), observation of adverse effects, and beliefs about treatment (The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire).\n\nDiscussion: Antidepressant drugs are an extraordinarily important therapeutic group in the pharmacy composition; economic repercussions and social impact associated to their use is clear. Despite their well-established efficacy in clinical trials, treatment non-compliance is a major obstacle to their effectiveness in clinical practice. The proposed study brings about useful conclusions to improve the results of these drugs. Additionally, devising a scale specifically designed to evaluate satisfaction with antidepressant treatment could be of interest in healthcare outcomes research.

The operating sell

The operating Alvocidib mouse surgeon also filled in the form blindly at the same postoperative period. The differences between pre and postoperative satisfaction scores for each group were also evaluated. Preoperatively, all cases were evaluated with uroflowmetry and compared with postoperative results measured at 6th week of surgery. P < 0.05 was considered as significant.\n\nResults Mean

follow-up was 24 months (4-28). Complications were encountered in 18 and 20% of the patients in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Complications were urethrocutaneous fistula, meatal stenosis, retrusive/proximal meatus and residual curvature. Success rates were 82 and 80%, respectively. Pevonedistat research buy No differences were seen in overall

satisfaction between the two groups (P = 0.07).\n\nConclusion Outcome of hypospadias repair in circumcised adults for cosmetic reasons is similar to uncircumcised hypospadics previously mentioned in the literature. Both dorsal and ventral flaps can be used in previously circumcised hypospadic adults with comparable satisfaction and complication rates and uroflow findings.”
“Photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium strains possess the unusual ability to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on a specific group of legumes in the absence of Nod factors. To obtain insight into the bacterial genes involved in this Nod-independent symbiosis, we screened 15,648 Tn5 mutants of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain ORS278 for clones affected in root symbiosis with Aeschynomene indica. From the 268 isolated mutants, 120 mutants were altered in nodule development (Ndv(-)) and 148 mutants were found to be deficient in nitrogen fixation (Fix(-)). More than 50% of the Ndv(-) mutants were found to be altered in purine biosynthesis, strengthening the previous hypothesis of a symbiotic role of a bacterial purine derivative during the Nod-independent learn more symbiosis. The other Ndv(-) mutants were auxotrophic for pyrimidines and amino acids (leucine,

glutamate, and lysine) or impaired in genes encoding proteins of unknown function. The Fix(-) mutants were found to be affected in a wide variety of cellular processes, including both novel (n = 56) and previously identified (n = 31) genes important in symbiosis. Among the novel genes identified, several were involved in the Calvin cycle, suggesting that CO(2) fixation could play an important role during this symbiosis.”
“This article reports our study on asymmetric epoxidation of unfunctionalized alkenes and asymmetric oxidation of sulfides catalyzed by a new triply immobilized (salen)Mn(III) system, when commercial sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide were loaded as terminal oxidant, respectively.

These data implicate EC responses in dengue virus pathogenesis an

These data implicate EC responses in dengue virus pathogenesis and further rationalize therapeutic targeting of the endothelium as a means of reducing the severity of dengue virus disease.”

markers or biomarkers can be used for diagnostic or prognostic purposes for all different types of complex disease, including brain tumors. Prognostic markers can be useful to explain differences not only in overall survival but also in response to treatment and for development of targeted therapies. Multiple genes with specific types of alterations have now been identified that are associated with improved response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, such as O-6-methylguanine methyltranferase (MGMT) or loss of chromosomes 1p and/or find more 19q. Other alterations have been identified that are associated with improved overall

survival, such as mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and/or isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) or having the glioma CpG island DNA methylator phenotype (G-CIMP). There are many biomarkers that may have relevance in brain tumor-associated epilepsy that do not respond Selleck NU7441 to treatment. Given the rapidly changing landscape of high throughput omics technologies, there is significant potential for gaining further knowledge via integration of multiple different types of high genome-wide data. This knowledge can be translated into improved therapies and clinical outcomes for patients with brain tumors.”
“A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic bacterium, designated strain BZ41(T), was isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. Phylogenetic analysis based on 165 rRNA gene sequences showed that strain BZ41(T) was related to members of the genus Agromyces and showed highest similarity with the type strain of Agromyces ramosus (96.8%). The morphological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic characteristics of the new isolate were consistent with the description AICAR chemical structure of the genus Agromyces. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain BZ41(T) was of type

B2 gamma and contained the amino acids 2,4-diaminobutyric acid, alanine, glycine and glutamic acid in an approximate molar ratio of 1.8 :0.7 :1.1 :1.0. The predominant cell-wall sugars were galactose, glucose, mannose and rhamnose. Strain BZ41(T) had MK-12 and MK-11 as major menaquinones and contained anteiso-C(15:0) and anteiso-C(17:0) as major fatty acids. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain BZ41(T) was 69.7 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics and genotypic analysis, strain BZ41(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Agromyces, for which the name Agromyces bauzanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BZ41(T) (=DSM 22275(T) =CGMCC 1.8984(T)).”
“Repetitive monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (RMVT) is characterized by episodes of ventricular ectopy and nonsustained VT exacerbated by catecholamines.

7-fold The molecular mass of the enzyme

was estimated to

7-fold. The molecular mass of the enzyme

was estimated to be 35 kDa, determined by SDS-PAGE and by gel filtration. The alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase exhibited maximal activity selleck compound at pH 6.0-7.0 and an optimal temperature at 55 degrees C. The half-life of the a-L-arabinofuranosidase at 60 degrees C was approximately 2 h and it was very stable over a wide pH range for 24h at 4 degrees C. The apparent Michaelis constant K-m value of the a-L-arabinofuranosidase was 0.77 mM for p-nitropenyL-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside. The turnover number (K-cat) and catalytic efficiency (K-cat/K-m) were found to be 14.3 s(-1) and 1.8 104 M-1 s(-1), respectively. Metal ions such as Hg2+ and Cu2+ inhibited enzyme activity, whereas it was strongly activated by Mn2+. The alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase was specific for the alpha-linked arabinoside in the furanoside configuration and can also retain 52% of its activity in the presence of p-nitropheny1-beta-D-xylopyranoside as substrate. alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase acted synergistically with the immobilized endo-beta-1,4-xylanase for the breakdown of alkali-extracted arabinoxylan and in the improvement of xylobiose and monosaccharide production. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”

high-efficiency plant regeneration check details protocol based on somatic embryo formation for Huining Roquette, an interesting ecotype of Eruca sativa Mill, was established for future transgenic applications. On Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), SB273005 mouse alone or in combination with 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) or kinetin (KT), the cotyledon explants, cotyledon petioles, and hypocotyls all produced embryogenic callus

(ECs) or somatic embryos (SEs) to different extents. After transferring onto hormone-free MS medium, the ECs or SEs from the different explants and media, all of them developed shoots with a frequency of 6-48%, and then produced roots with a frequency of 2-29%. As regards the probability of shoot differentiation, cotyledon explants appeared similar to hypocotyls, but superior to cotyledon petioles; 2,4-D+KT worked more effectively than 2,4-D alone and 2,4-D+BA for callus induction and shoot differentiation. The optimal hormone combinations for plant regeneration of cotyledon, cotyledon petiole, and hypocotyl explants were 1.0mg/l 2,4-D+0.1mg/l KT, 0.8mg/l 2,4-D+0.3mg/l BA, and 1.0mg/l 2,4-D+0.3mg/l KT, respectively. MS medium with 60-80 g/l sucrose was the most effective for improving SE maturation and germination.”
“A new homologous series of intermetallic compounds containing three-dimensional (3-d) tetrahedral frameworks of gold atoms, akin to hexagonal diamond, have been discovered in four related Sr-Au-Al systems: (I) hexagonal SrAl3-x,Au4+x (0.06(1) smaller than = x smaller than = 0.46(1), P (6) over bar 2m, Z = 3, a = 8.633(1)-8.664(1) angstrom, c = 7.083(2)-7.107(1) angstrom); (II) orthorhombic SrAl2-yAu5+y (y smaller than = 0.05(1); Pnma, Z = 4, a = 8.