Second, there was no evidence for a higher incidence of recent po

Second, there was no evidence for a higher incidence of recent positive selection on X-linked than autosomal intellectual disability genes, nor was there a higher incidence of selection on such genes overall, compared to sets of control genes. However, the X-linked intellectual disability genes inferred to be subject to recent positive selection were concentrated in the Rho GTP-ase pathway, a key signaling pathway in neural development

and function. Third, among all intellectual disability genes, there was evidence for a higher incidence of recent positive selection on genes involved in DNA repair, but not for genes involved in other functions. These LDC000067 clinical trial results provide evidence that alterations to genes in the Rho GTP-ase and DNA-repair pathways may play especially-important roles in the evolution of human cognition and vulnerability NCT-501 to genetically-based intellectual disability.”
“Purpose: To evaluate the effects of case management using Resident Assessment

Instrument-Home Care (RAI-HC) in home health service for older people. Methods: All elders were assessed at baseline and 3 months later using RAI-HC. The change of function in the intervention group was compared with that of a conventional intervention group. Function was measured with Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS), Depression Rating Scale (DRS), Pain and the number of Clinical Assessment Protocols (CAP). Results: Among ninety two elders participated in the program, 59 were allocated to the case management group and 33 to the conventional group. The intervention, home health service by a nurse over a 3 month period, consisted of comprehensive assessment, case conference for care click here plan, direct care, education and referral, and outcome evaluation. The percent of elders whose function improved in the intervention group was greater

than the conventional group for depression (odds ratio [OR]: 10.941, confidence interval [Cl]: 2.338-51.206), IADL (OR: 4.423, Cl: 1.151-16.999) and the number of CAP (OR: 11.443, Cl: 3.805-34.410). Conclusion: Case management was effective for older people in the community. The effect might have resulted from individual, systematic intervention, however, standards of service including eligibility criteria for case management and collaboration of multi-disciplines is required for more effective home health service programs.”
“The influence of asymmetric vocal fold stiffness on voice production was evaluated using life-sized, self-oscillating vocal fold models with an idealized geometry based on the human vocal folds. The models were fabricated using flexible. materially-linear silicone compounds with Young’s modulus values compatable to that of vocal fold tissue. The models included a two-layer design to simulate the vocal fold layered structure.

Poor periodontal health may prevent adults from expressing positi

Poor periodontal health may prevent adults from expressing positive emotions which, in turn, can impact their self-concept as well as their social interactions.”
“The virtual endocast of MH1 (Australopithecus sediba), obtained from high-quality synchrotron scanning, reveals generally australopith-like Nepicastat research buy convolutional patterns on the frontal lobes but also some foreshadowing of features of the human frontal lobes, such as posterior repositioning of the olfactory bulbs. Principal component analysis of orbitofrontal dimensions on australopith endocasts (MH1, Sts 5, and Sts 60) indicates that among these, MH1 orbitofrontal shape and organization align most closely with

human endocasts. These results are consistent with gradual neural reorganization

of the orbitofrontal region in the transition from Australopithecus to Homo, but given the small volume of the MH1 endocast, they are not consistent with gradual brain enlargement before the transition.”
“Despite the fact that all vertically transmitted symbionts sequester resources from their hosts and are therefore costly to maintain, there is an extraordinary diversity of them in invertebrates. Some spread through host populations by providing their hosts with fitness benefits or by manipulating host sex ratio, but some do not: their maintenance in host lineages remains an enigma. In this review, I explore the evolutionary ecology of vertically transmitted symbionts and their impact on host resistance, and provide an overview of the evidence for the three-way interactions between these symbionts, eFT-508 natural enemies and invertebrate hosts. A number of recent empirical and theoretical

studies suggest that vertically transmitted symbionts may protect their hosts from pathogens. If this ‘symbiont-mediated protection’ is widespread, it is likely that vertically transmitted symbionts contribute significantly to variation in measures of invertebrate resistance to natural enemies.”
“Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer is the most common known genetic syndrome that predisposes to various types of cancer including gastric cancer and occures mainly due to pathogenic germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) BMS345541 genes, such as MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6. Impaired MMR activity can lead to microsatellite instability (MSI) in tumor tissues. Interpreting the pathogenic significance of identified mutations in MMR genes, especially missense alterations and short in-frame deletions and insertions is challenging and functional analysis is often needed to accurately assess their pathogenicities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate functional significance of MLH1 missense mutations, previously identified in unrelated Slovenian patients with MSI-positive gastric carinomas. A novel in vivo yeast-based approach and in silico predictions were used.

Images of biological samples show successful imaging of both thin

Images of biological samples show successful imaging of both thin layers of fixed cells prepared on a slide as well as thick samples of excised fixed porcine epithelial tissue, thus demonstrating the potential for

in vivo use. (C) 2008 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. [DOI: 10.1117/1.2978060]“
“Hyperbilirubinemia remains one of the most frequent clinical diagnoses in the neonatal period. This condition may lead to the deposition of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) in the central nervous system, causing nerve cell damage by molecular and cellular mechanisms that are still being clarified. To date, all the studies regarding bilirubin-induced neurological dysfunction were performed in monotypic nerve cell cultures. The use of co-cultures, where astrocyte-containing culture inserts are placed on the top of neuron cultures, provides the ABT-737 means to directly evaluate Anlotinib the cross-talk between these two different cell types. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate whether protective or detrimental effects are produced by astrocytes over UCB-induced neurodegeneration. Our experimental model used an indirect co-culture system where neuron-to-astrocyte signaling was established concomitantly with the 24 h exposure to UCB. In this model astrocytes abrogated the well-known UCB-induced neurotoxic effects by preventing the loss of cell viability, dysfunction and death

by apoptosis, as well as the impairment of neuritic outgrowth. To this protection it may have accounted the induced expression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 and the 3.5-fold increase in the values of S100B, when communication between both cells was established independently of UCB presence. In addition, the presence of astrocytes in the neuronal STI571 ic50 environment preserved the UCB-induced increase in glutamate levels, but raised the basal concentrations of nitric oxide and TNF-alpha although no UCB effects were noticed. Our data suggest that bidirectional

signalling during astrocyte-neuron recognition exerts pro-survival effects, stimulates neuritogenesis and sustains neuronal homeostasis, thus protecting cells from the immediate UCB injury. These findings may help explain why irreversible brain damage usually develops only after the first day of post-natal life.”
“A specialized nucleosome is a component of all eukaryotic kinetochores. The core of this nucleosome contains a centromere-specific histone, CENP-A (the Cse4 gene product in budding yeast), instead of the usual H3. Assembly of a centromeric nucleosome depends on a specific chaperone, called Scm3 in yeast and HJURP in higher eukaryotes. We describe here the structure of a complex formed by an N-terminal fragment of Scm3 with the histone-fold domains of Cse4, and H4, all prepared as recombinant proteins derived from the budding yeast Kluyveromyces lactis.

(C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved “
“While

(C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“While aerobic exercise has been linked to improved performance on cognitive tasks of

executive functioning among older adults, not all older adults can avail themselves of such exercise due to physical limitations. In this study, community-dwelling older adults were evaluated on tasks of executive functioning before and after a month-long strengthening, nonaerobic exercise program. A total of 16 participants who engaged in such exercise showed significantly improved scores on Digits Backward and Stroop C tasks when compared to 16 participants who were on an exercise waiting list. Positive benefits of strengthening exercise on cognition are supported. Additional research is needed to clarify the generalizability of these findings.”
“Introduction\n\nLimited research has examined primary care providers’ Selleckchem Nepicastat communication with patients about maintaining ACY-241 research buy cognitive functioning. Our study’s objective was to compare the perceptions of consumers and primary care providers related to beliefs and communication practices about lifestyle behaviors beneficial for overall health and for maintaining cognitive functioning.\n\nMethods\n\nIn 2009, we submitted 10

questions to Porter Novelli’s HealthStyles survey and 6 questions to their DocStyles survey. We compared consumers’ (n = 4,728) and providers’ (n = 1,250) beliefs, practices, and information sources related to maintaining health and cognitive functioning. We made comparisons using nonparametric statistics.\n\nResults\n\nApproximately 7 6% of consumers considered their health to be good or very good; 73.4% were concerned or very concerned about the possibility that their memory may worsen with age. Women were significantly more concerned than men, and white consumers were more concerned than black and Hispanic consumers. Consumers reported they believed that intellectual stimulation (86.6%), GPCR Compound Library cell line physical activity (82.6%), and

healthful diet (82.5%) prevented or delayed cognitive impairment. Providers reported advising patients to reduce cognitive impairment risk through physical activity (85.9%), intellectual stimulation (80.3%), and social involvement (67.4%). Few consumers (7.8%) reported receiving this information from providers but reported learning about strategies to maintain memory, primarily from television (50.1%), magazines (44.1%), and newspapers (33.7%).\n\nConclusion\n\nProviders reported advising patients about how to reduce risks of cognitive impairment. Consumers reported receiving this information from other sources. Findings suggest a need to examine and assess media messages and to better understand patient-provider communication about cognitive functioning.”
“Ethylene glycol-water mixtures (EGWM) are vital for cooling engines in automotive industry.

Here we use single-cell transcript profiling, FACS and mathematic

Here we use single-cell transcript profiling, FACS and mathematical modeling to show that the stochastic phase is an ordered probabilistic process with independent gene-specific dynamics. We also show that partially reprogrammed cells infected with OSKM follow

two trajectories: a productive trajectory toward increasingly ESC-like expression profiles or an alternative trajectory leading away from both the fibroblast and ESC state. These selleck chemicals two pathways are distinguished by the coordinated expression of a small group of chromatin modifiers in the productive trajectory, supporting the notion that chromatin remodeling is essential for successful reprogramming. These are the first results to show that the stochastic phase of reprogramming in human fibroblasts is an ordered, probabilistic process with gene-specific dynamics and to provide a precise check details mathematical framework describing the dynamics of pluripotency gene expression during reprogramming by OSKM.”
“The effects of an antioxidative pentapeptide from chickpea protein hydrolysates on oxidative

stress in Caco-2 and HT-29 cell lines were investigated. The bioactive pentapeptide had an amino acid sequence of Asn-Arg-Try-His-Glu (NRYHE). Caco-2 and HT-29 cells were pretreated with peptide (0.05, 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/mL) for 2 h and stimulated with 1 mM H2O2 for 6 h. The activity of three important antioxidative enzymes, catalase, glutathione

reductase and glutathione peroxidase, increased in a concentration-dependent manner. It was observed that MI-503 purchase peptide treatment elevated the expression of Nrf2 mRNA and several relative genes NQO1, HO-1, gamma-GCS regulated by Nrf2 compared to the positive control. The trends in HT-29 and Caco-2 cells were similar. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In this paper, we have successfully synthesized high quality single crystalline CuO nanosheets through a simple hydrothermal method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations reveal that CuO nanosheets have the width of about 500 nm, length of about 1000 nm and thickness of about 50 nm. UV-vis absorption spectrum shows that optical band gap energy of CuO nanosheets has a blue shift compared with CuO bulk state. Raman spectrum shows there are three obviously CuO vibration modes, suggesting high purity and high crystalline of CuO nanosheets could be obtained under our experimental conditions. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectrum shows that CuO nanosheets have an obviously emission band at about 523 nm. At the same time, N-2 adsorption-desorption isotherm experiment shows that the BET specific surface area of obtained CuO nanosheets is 5.87 m(2) g(-1). (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

(C) 2015 Elsevier GmbH All rights reserved “
“Fibroblast

(C) 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.”
“Fibroblast

growth factors (FGFs) are important signaling molecules that regulate many stages of endochondral bone development. During the healing of a skeletal fracture, several features of endochondral bone development are reactivated. To better understand the role of FGFs in skeletal fracture healing, we quantitatively evaluated the temporal expression patterns of Fgfs, Fgf receptors (Fgfrs), and molecular markers of bone development over a 14-day period following long bone fracture in a mouse model. These studies identify distinct groups of FGFs that are differentially expressed and suggest active stage-specific roles for FGF signaling during the fracture repair process. Developmental Dynamics 238:766-774, 2009. Ferroptosis inhibitor clinical trial (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“The exploitation of various agro-industrial wastes for microbial cell mass production of Kluyveromyces marxianus, kefir, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reported in the present investigation. Selleckchem ARN-509 Specifically, the promotional effect of whole orange pulp on cell growth in mixtures consisting of cheese whey, molasses, and potato pulp in submerged fermentation processes was examined. A 2- to 3-fold increase of cell mass was observed in the presence of orange pulp. Likewise, the promotional effect of brewer’s spent grains on cell growth in

solid state fermentation of mixtures of whey, molasses, potato pulp, malt spent rootlets, and orange pulp was examined. The cell mass was increased by 3-fold for K. marxianus and 2-fold for S. cerevisiae in the presence of these substrates, proving their suitability for single-cell protein production without the need for extra nutrients. Cell growth kinetics were also studied by measurements of cell counts at various time intervals at different concentrations of added orange pulp. The protein content of the fermented substrates was increased substantially, indicating potential use of mixed agro-industrial wastes of negligible cost, as protein-enriched

livestock feed, achieving at the same time creation Selleck SC79 of added value and waste minimization.”
“A 4.5-year-old female bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) presented for periorbital swelling affecting the left eye. A well-organized, hypoechoic mass was noted ventral and medial to the globe on ocular ultrasound. The mass continued to grow despite antibiotic therapy, and an exenteration was performed. The mass was diagnosed via histopathology and immunohistochemical staining as a probable lacrimal gland carcinoma, although a Harderian gland origin could not definitively be ruled out. The tumor recurred following removal, and the lizard died 2months postoperatively.”
“Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP) is a low cost nasal CPAP delivery system with potential benefits to developing nations.

However, opportunities exist for the interdisciplinary team, incl

However, opportunities exist for the interdisciplinary team, including medical, surgical, and radiation oncologists; psychiatrists; and primary care physicians, to intervene throughout the continuum of cancer care to promote Proteasome inhibitor survival and quality of life. This review summarizes data on overall and cancer-specific mortality for individuals with schizophrenia and reviews specific disparities across the cancer care continuum of screening, diagnosis, treatment, and end-of-life care. Using a case, the authors illustrate clinical challenges for this population including communication, informed consent, and risk of suicide, and provide suggestions for care. Finally, recommendations

for research to address the disparities in cancer care for individuals with schizophrenia are discussed. Despite significant challenges, with collaboration XMU-MP-1 between oncology and mental health teams, individuals with schizophrenia can receive high-quality cancer care. Cancer 2014; 120: 323-34. (C) 2013 American Cancer Society.”
“Aims Oestrogen has been speculated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of primary

biliary cirrhosis (PBC), which mainly affects middle-aged and old-aged females because biliary epithelial cells (BECs) are known to express oestrogen receptors (ERs). Oestrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are constitutively active without oestrogen and competitively inhibit the ER-dependent effects of oestrogen. We clarified the effects of oestrogen and

the significance of ERRs along with their association with the pathogenesis of cholangiopathy in PBC. Methods We investigated the expression of ERs and ERRs and the apoptosis-related cell kinetics in BECs using cultured human BECs and human liver specimens. Results Although cultured human BECs and the interlobular bile ducts Pevonedistat in the liver expressed ER beta, in cultured BECs, oestrogen treatment did not induce significant cell proliferation but increased the expression of a negative cell proliferation regulator (14-3-3s protein). The cultured BECs constantly expressed ERR alpha and ERR., and oestrogen downregulated the ERR. expression. Furthermore, the ERR. expression was determined in the intrahepatic bile ducts and was stronger in the middle-aged and old-aged females, particularly those with PBC, than in the younger females. The ERR. ligand activated a transcription factor, SP1, and enhanced the expression of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family molecules and Bcl-2 inhibitor-induced apoptosis in cultured BECs. Conclusions Although oestrogen downregulates the ERR. expression, the increased ERR. expression under oestrogen-deficient conditions increases the susceptibility to Bcl-2 family-mediated apoptosis in cultured human BECs of females, particularly those with PBC. Understanding the oestrogen-mediated cell kinetics is important for elucidating the pathogenesis of cholangiopathy in PBC.

Ratings for 0% polished

(brown rice) were substantially l

Ratings for 0% polished

(brown rice) were substantially lower than those of 2.3% polished rice, which were intermediate in ratings between 0% and 4.4% polishing. However, most of the consumers (93%) expressed a willingness to substitute brown or 2.3% polished rice, if affordable, after the taste tests and education on nutritional and health benefits of whole grains.\n\nConclusion: Though most consumers preferred polished white rice, education regarding health benefits may help this population switch to brown or undermilled rice. Cooking quality and appearance of the grains were perceived as the most important factors to consider when purchasing rice among Chennai urban adults.”
“Purpose: CD163 is a scavenger receptor which is exclusively expressed on monocytes/ macrophages and participates in modulation of inflammatory response. HTS assay We aimed to evaluate ex vivo production of soluble CD163 (sCD163) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma, SSc).\n\nMaterial/ Methods: Concentration of sCD163 was measured by commercially available ELISA kit in the PBMC suparnates from 23 SSc patients and 16 age-and sex-matched healthy

controls (HC). Eighteen SSc patients were signaling pathway subsequently followed for at least three years or until death whichever happened earlier. Disease progression was defined as death due to SSc-related selleck products organ complication, development of a new or progression of pre-existing SSc-related organ involvement.\n\nResults: PBMC from SSc patients released significantly greater amounts of sCD163 as compared with HC

(p<0.05). No significant associations between release of sCD163 by PBMC and baseline clinical or laboratory parameters of the disease could be found. However, concentration of sCD163 in cell culture supernates was significantly higher in 6 SSc patients who experienced subsequent progression of the disease as compared with 12 SSc patients with stable disease course over a 3-year follow-up period (p<0.05).\n\nConclusions: We show, for the first time, that PBMC from SSc release significantly greater amounts of sCD163 than do PBMC from healthy subjects. Evaluation of sCD163 production by PBMC ex vivo may serve as a new biomarker of disease progression. Further studies are required to evaluate the role of sCD163 in the development of SSc.”
“Following brain injury, return of consciousness and cough reflex are presumed to be associated with safe airway. We describe two patients who had a normal cough reflex, but impaired swallowing, which led to prolonged hospital stay. This report highlights the dissociation between the cough reflex and swallowing function in such patients.”
“Management of venous thromboembolism disease could be improved by new drugs with lower risk of bleeding and without the need of regular monitoring of anticoagulant effect.

Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbi

\n\nSearch methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 June 2013) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We also contacted trial authors.\n\nSelection criteria Randomised controlled trials in women at sufficient risk of preterm birth to warrant the use of prenatal corticosteroids to promote lung maturity. TRH and corticosteroids were compared with corticosteroids, with or without placebo.\n\nData collection and analysis All assessments of trial eligibility, risk of bias and data extractions were independently carried out by at least two review authors.\n\nMain

results Over 4600 women were recruited into the 15 trials included in the review, however two trials did not contribute any outcome data to the review. The trials had a GW786034 LY3023414 mw moderate risk of bias. Overall, prenatal TRH, in addition to corticosteroids, did not reduce the risk of death prior to hospital discharge (risk ratio (RR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86 to 1.27, six trials, 3694

infants), neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (average RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.22, nine trials, 3833 infants), or chronic lung disease (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.19, five trials, 2511 infants), and did not improve any of the secondary fetal, neonatal or childhood outcomes assessed by intention-to-treat analyses.\n\nIndeed, the data showed prenatal TRH to have adverse effects for women and their infants. All side effects reported (nausea, vomiting, light headedness, urgency of micturition, facial flushing) were significantly more likely to occur in women receiving TRH. In the infants, prenatal TRH increased the risk of needing respiratory support (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.29, three trials, 1969 infants), and of having a low Apgar score at five minutes (RR 1.48, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.92, three trials, 1969 infants). Only three trials provided data on childhood follow-up, and while one trial suggested poorer outcomes for infants who were exposed to prenatal TRH, the other two trials, that assessed infants using an established developmental

instrument, showed no clear differences between groups in follow-up outcomes.\n\nSensitivity analyses by trial quality, or subgroups NU7026 manufacturer with differing times from entry to birth, or different dose regimens of TRH, did not change these findings.\n\nAuthors’ conclusions\n\nPrenatal TRH in addition to corticosteroids, given to women at risk of preterm birth, does not improve infant outcomes and can cause maternal side effects.”
“In this study, a most consumer-acceptable rye bread (RB) containing saffron (S) powder (RB+S) was designed to verify its anti-diabetic properties, and to compare these effects with those of RB and S separately, matched to a similar dose of bioactive components, used in the high-fat (HF) diet in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Wistar rats. After baking, beneficial antioxidant and sensory properties for RB enriched with 0.

The mRNA levels of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were increased in the hype

The mRNA levels of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were increased in the hyperthyroid group of animals compared to euthyroid control (p < 0.05), and its changes were reversible 2 weeks after treatment cessation (P < 0.05). Adiponectin receptors gene expression levels in the adipose tissue

of treated animals have positive correlations with thyroid hormones concentrations. Our results suggest that AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 gene expression is regulated by thyroid hormones in hypo- and hyperthyroidism.”
“The static and dynamic properties of binary mixtures of hard spheres with a diameter ratio of sigma(B)/sigma(A)= 0.1 and a mass ratio of m(B)/m(A)= 0.001 are investigated using event driven molecular dynamics. The contact values of the pair correlation functions are found to compare favorably with recently proposed theoretical expressions. The transport

coefficients of the mixture, determined from simulation, are compared to the predictions Erastin concentration of the revised Enskog theory using both a third-order Sonine expansion and direct simulation Monte Carlo. Overall, the Enskog theory buy Repotrectinib provides a fairly good description of the simulation data, with the exception of systems at the smallest mole fraction of larger spheres (x(A)=0.01) examined. A “fines effect” was observed at higher packing fractions, where adding smaller spheres to a system of large spheres decreases the viscosity of the mixture; this effect is not captured by the Enskog theory. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3120488]“
“Extracellular and intracellular alpha-galactosidases were produced by yeast Debaryomyces hansenii UFV-1 grown on different media with several carbon sources. D. hansenii grown

in YP-medium (1% yeast extract and 2% peptone) presented maximum cell mass (8.45 mg/mL) after 36 h of cultivation, with lactose as carbon source, followed by sucrose, glucose, raffinose, and galactose. Higher extracellular and intracellular alpha-galactosidases activities were observed at 48 h of D. hansenii cultivation in YPmedium containing JAK inhibitor galactose (0.97 and 5.27 U/mL) and lactose (1.28 and 4.88 U/mL), supporting the evidence for the model of induction for the yeast GAL/MEL regulon, such as described in Sacharomyces cereviseae.”
“The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of interictal compared to ictal SPECT in the lateralization of the epileptogenic focus in refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients that present with normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). Thirty patients with TLE, for whom MRI examinations were normal or who presented with bilateral MTS, were retrospectively studied. Using a confidence interval of 95% and a level of significance for p-value <0.05, an estimated agreement rate of 73% with a minimum agreement rate of 57% was calculated comparing interictal and ictal SPECTs.