The reliability of MCE-ED approach was demonstrated toward the hi

The reliability of MCE-ED approach was demonstrated toward the high agreement between the total phenolic content obtained using microchip approach with those obtained by the well-established HPLC-DAD; revealing both identical order regarding the total phenolic content in the target samples. In addition, further comparison of MCE-ED with the traditional Folin-Ciocalteu antioxidant capacity assay, showed that MCE-ED approach

could become a class-selective antioxidant capacity assay revealing that the sample antioxidant capacity was decreasing as Tl > Mp > Cs > Cc > Co according to their endogenous polyphenol content. These results suggested that the microchip approach is not only a reliable method for selleck fast assessment of class-selective antioxidants constituting a very good alternative to the long analysis times and the using of toxic solvents required in HPLC but a novel truly antioxidant capacity assay. This excellent analytical performance is connected with the key-features of the ready-to-use system employed AZD6094 datasheet in this work such as portability, full integration of electrochemical detection, easy-operation, and potential MCE-ED disposability.”
“1,5-Diarylsubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles are formed in high yield from aryl azides and terminal alkynes in DMSO in the presence of

catalytic tetraalkylammonium hydroxide. The reaction is experimentally simple, does not require a transition-metal catalyst, and is not sensitive to atmospheric

oxygen and moisture.”
“P>Altitude training is sometimes employed by elite endurance athletes to improve their sea level performance. This improvement results from the increased red cell mass consequent upon the boost in erythropoietin (EPO) level that occurs as a response to the relatively hypoxic environment at high altitudes. We measured serum EPO levels together with various red cell and reticulocyte parameters including immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF) in eight national track-endurance cyclists, resident at sea-level, prior to and upon return from an altitude of approximately 1905 m. Reticulocytes and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were significantly increased with reduction in ferritin levels immediately on return from high altitude indicating increased selleck chemicals erythropoietic activity. IRF in particular showed a significant peak immediately on return but decline to sub-baseline levels by day 9, and recovery to baseline by day 16. Our results indicate that IRF is a sensitive marker of erythropoietic status in athletes undergoing altitude training and subsequent loss of EPO stimuli on return to sea level.”
“The aims of this meta-analysis were to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the KT 1000 Arthrometer, Stryker Knee Laxity Tester and Genucom Knee Analysis System for ACL rupture.

An important finding is that some f-information measures are show

An important finding is that some f-information measures are shown to be effective for selecting relevant and nonredundant genes from microarray data. The effectiveness of different f-information measures, along with a comparison with mutual information, is demonstrated on breast cancer, leukemia, and colon cancer datasets. While some f-information measures provide 100% prediction accuracy for all three microarray datasets, mutual information attains this accuracy only for breast

cancer dataset, and 98.6% and 93.6% for leukemia and colon cancer datasets, respectively.”
“Factors controlling metabolic flexibility (MF), the ability DNA Synthesis inhibitor of the body to switch from fat to carbohydrate oxidation in response to feeding or with insulin administration, CA3 in vivo are being actively investigated We sought to determine the effects of race (African

American vs Caucasian) and diabetes status (nondiabetic vs type 2 diabetes mellitus Individuals) on MF to glucose in humans. Respiratory quotient (RQ) and macronutrient substrate utilization were evaluated by Indirect calorimetry during baseline (fasting) and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (insulin infusion of 120 mU m(-2) min(-1)), Delta RQ (MF) = clamp RQ – fasting RQ. The study included 168 human subjects of different races (55 African Americans, 113 Caucasians), sex (73 men, 95 women), ages (18-73 years), body mass index (19 3-47 7 kg/m(2)), and diabetes status (89 nondiabetic, 79 type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects) Metabolic flexibility was negatively correlated (P < .01) with age (r = -0 41), fasting RQ (r = -0 22), fasting glucose (r = -0 55), insulin (r = -0 40), and triglyceride Tozasertib cell line (r = -0 44) concentrations, whereas a positive association was observed with insulin sensitivity (r = 0 69, P < 0001)

Insulin sensitivity, fasting RQ, triglyceride concentrations, diabetes status, and race accounted for 71% of the variability in MF with insulin sensitivity being the main determinant factor (model R(2) = 048, P < 0001). After controlling for the significant predictors, MF was higher in African Americans vs Caucasians (mean +/- SEM 0 080 +/- 0.004 vs 0.069 +/- 0 002, P = 008) and in nondiabetic vs type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects (P = .003) This study confirms that insulin sensitivity is the major contributor to MF in humans, but provides the novel findings that African Americans have significantly greater MF than Caucasians even after adjusting for insulin sensitivity and diabetes status (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved”
“A number of reports have suggested that the oxidative state of human albumin in serum and in some body fluids is associated with cell damage. However there are no reports on the redox state of human follicular fluid (FF) and its influence on oocyte viability.

Here, we purified a signaling molecule (avenolide) from Streptomy

Here, we purified a signaling molecule (avenolide) from Streptomyces avermitilis-the producer of the important anthelmintic agent avermectin with annual world sales of $ 850 million-and determined its structure, including stereochemistry, by spectroscopic analysis and chemical synthesis as (4S, 10R)-10-hydroxy-10methyl-9-oxo-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide, a class of Streptomyces autoregulator. Avenolide is essential for eliciting avermectin production

and is effective at nanomolar concentrations with a minimum effective concentration of 4 nM. The aco gene of S. avermitilis, which encodes an acyl-CoA oxidase, is required for avenolide biosynthesis, and homologs are also present in Streptomyces Selleck Napabucasin fradiae, Streptomyces ghanaensis, and Streptomyces griseoauranticus, suggesting that butenolide-type autoregulators may represent a widespread and another class of Streptomyces autoregulator involved in regulating antibiotic production.”
“Within the Netherlands Cohort Study (1986), we examined associations between alcohol consumption, the alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (ADH1C) genotype, and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). After a follow-up period of 7.3 years, 594 CRC cases

with information on genotype and baseline alcohol intake were available for analyses. Adjusted incidence check details rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. In subjects who reported to have consumed equal amounts of total alcohol both 5 years before baseline and at baseline, drinkers of >= 30 g of alcohol per day with the ADH1C*2/*2 genotype were associated although not statistically significant with an increased risk of CRC relative to abstainers with the ADH1C*1/*1 genotype (RR: 1.91, 95% CI: 0.68,

5.34). The risk estimate in this exposure group increased slightly when compared with light drinkers of >= 0.5 – <5 g/day with the ADH1C*1/*1 genotype (RR: 2.32, 95% CI: 0.80, 6.72). The interaction term however, was not statistically significant (P > .05). In subjects who reported to have consumed equal amounts of total alcohol both 5 years before baseline and at baseline, drinkers of >= 30 g of alcohol per day were associated-although not statistically significant-with an increased risk of CRC relative to abstainers (RR: 1.38, SN-38 95% CI: 0.80, 2.38). This risk estimate for high-level drinkers became stronger when compared with light drinkers (RR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.99). As main effect of genotype, we observed that the ADH1C*2/*2 genotype was associated with a 42% increase in risk of CRC when compared with the ADH1C*1/*1 genotype. In conclusion, both genotype and alcohol consumption were associated with an increased risk of CRC. Owing to limited statistical power, we found no apparent evidence for the ADH1C genotype as effect modifier of the relationship between alcohol intake and CRC.

Nineteen patients with histologically confirmed unresectable

\n\nNineteen patients with histologically confirmed unresectable or recurrent gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination were enrolled. Oral S-1 at 80 mg/m(2)/day was administered twice daily for 2 weeks, followed by 1 drug-free week. Docetaxel infusion at 40 mg/m(2) was performed on day 1, simultaneous with S-1 administration. The primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and time to progression (TTP). The secondary endpoints were the response rates and safety status.\n\nPatients received a median of 4 cycles of the S-1 and

docetaxel regimen (range 1-43). The disease control rate was 73.7 % (14/19). Median overall survival was 459 days (15.3 months), while median time to progression selleck inhibitor was 212 days (7.1 months). Neutropenia was the most common type of toxicity (n = 7, 36.8 %).\n\nCombination chemotherapy with S-1 and docetaxel is a tolerable and effective treatment for advanced or recurrent gastric cancer patients with peritoneal dissemination.”
“Objective. We previously showed that Adamantiades-Behcet’s disease (A-BD) is associated with a lower incidence of malignancy compared with the general population. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) has been shown to play a role

AZD7762 in cartilage regeneration and is increased in patients with A-BD. We also found 2 functional polymorphisms of the TGF-beta pathway, TGFBRI*6A and TGFBI*CC, that are associated with risk of malignancy. We tested whether incidence of these polymorphisms would differ in patients Staurosporine with A-BD compared with healthy controls of similar age and geographic location.\n\nMethods. We performed a case-control study including 139 cases and 128 controls from Greece. Cases and controls were genotyped for TGFBRI*6A and TGFBI*CC.\n\nResults. We found that cases had lower incidence

of TGFBRI*6A compared with controls (11.3% vs 13.3%, respectively). Also, the incidence of TGFBI*CC was lower in cases than controls (24.6% vs 27.0%, respectively). These differences were not statistically significant.\n\nConclusion. Although there is a suggestion that the lower incidence of TGFBRI*6A in A-BD patients may play a protective role against development of malignancy, larger studies would be needed to fully evaluate the role of TGF-beta and its polymorphisms in A-BD. (First Release Oct 15 2008: J Rheumatol 2008:35:2376-8; doi: 10.3899/jrheum.080676)”
“Based on the analysis of more than 270 patents and scientific articles, this state-of-the-art review presents Ganoderma lucidum, a medicinal basidiomycete mushroom with immunomodulatory and anti-cancer effects. Cultivation methods for the commercial production of G. lucidum fruit bodies and mycelia are summarized, with main active compounds of triterpenoids, polysaccharides, and proteins, often found in forms of proteoglycans or glycopeptides.

The rate of expenditure of the accumulated charge depends on the

The rate of expenditure of the accumulated charge depends on the composition of the nanoparticles and is determined by their electric capacitance. A correlation was found between the photocatalytic activity of the Cd (x) Zn1-x S nanoparticles in the release of hydrogen from solutions of Na2SO3, their composition, and their capacity for photoinduced accumulation of excess charge. It was shown that Ni-0 nanoparticles photodeposited on the surface

of Cd (x) Zn1-x S are effective cocatalysts for the release of hydrogen. It was found that Zn-II additions in photocatalytic systems based on Cd (x) Zn1-x S/Ni-0 nanostructures have a promoting action selleckchem on the release of hydrogen from water-ethanol mixtures.”
“A retrospective serosurvey was carried out between 2009 and 2012 to detect antibodies

to Brucella spp. in free-ranging African wildlife ungulates from five selected game parks in Zimbabwe. Samples were drawn from wildlife-livestock interface and non-interface areas in Zimbabwe. A total of 270 serum samples from four different species, namely find more African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) (n = 106), impala (Aepyceros melampus) (n = 72), black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) (n = 45) and white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) (n = 47), were tested. The percentage of positive samples was 17.0% in buffalo (18/106; 95% CI: 9.72% -24.1%) and 1.4% in impala (1/72; 95% CI: 0% -4.2%). No antibodies to Brucella spp. were detected in the two rhinoceros species. The difference in the percentage of seropositive cases between buffalo and impala was significant (p < 0.05). Seropositivity to Brucella spp. was higher (19.1%) in adult buffalo compared with juveniles and sub-adults younger than six years (5.9%). Further, seropositivity was marginally higher (20.4%) in animals from wildlife-livestock interface areas than in those from non-interface areas (13.45%; OR = 1.45) although the difference was not statistically significant. The study showed that brucellosis could be more widespread in buffalo and

may circulate in this species independently in the absence of contact with cattle, whilst rhinoceros may be considered less susceptible to brucellosis. The role of the wildlifelivestock interface in the epidemiology of brucellosis in wildlife and livestock is probably overstated but needs to be explored further.”
“Objectives: The purpose of this study is to validate the efficacy of intensive statin therapy for patients with atherosclerotic intracranial arterial stenosis (AICAS). Methods: In this study, we performed a single-center, randomized, single-blind, parallel-group clinical trial. A total of 120 Chinese patients with AICAS were enrolled and randomly divided into three groups [low-dose atorvastatin therapy (LAT, 10 mg/day), standard-dose atorvastatin therapy (SAT, 20 mg/day), and intensive-dose atorvastatin therapy (IAT, 40 mg/day) groups] in a 1:1:1 ratio.

001) C643 cells showed increased CYP24A1 mRNA expression

001). C643 cells showed increased CYP24A1 mRNA expression

when treated with 1,25(OH)(2)D-3 (5.36, p < 0.001). D-3, 25(OH)D-3 and 1,25(OH)(2)D-3 all significantly decreased cell proliferation in TPC1 and C643 cells. Overall, both cancerous and N-thy cell lines express CYP27A1 and CYP2R1 in addition to CYP27B1, establishing the potential to metabolize D-3 to 1,25(OH)(2)D-3. Additionally, vitamin D-3, 25(OH)D-3 and 1,25(OH)(2)D-3 all had an antiproliferative effect on two thyroid cancer cell lines. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“The PROTORP server analyses protein-protein associations in 3D structures. Blebbistatin purchase The server calculates a series of physical and chemical parameters of the protein interaction sites that contribute to the binding energy of the association. These parameters include, size and shape, intermolecular bonding, residue and atom composition and secondary structure contributions. The server is flexible, in that it allows users to analyse individual protein associations or large datasets of associations deposited in the PDB, or upload and analyse proprietary

files. The properties calculated can be compared with parameter distributions for non-homologous datasets of different classes of protein associations provided on the server website. The server provides an efficient way of characterizing protein-protein associations of new or existing proteins, and a means of putting these values in the context of previously observed associations.”
“The concept of cancer stem cells (CSC) has drawn great attention from researchers in both molecular and clinical fields as has brought a new perspective to the HKI272 way we manage cancer. CSC have several characteristics that are shared

by the properties of normal stem cells, such as differentiation, self-renewal and homeostatic control. However, CSC have the capacity to both divide and expand the CSC pool and to differentiate into heterogeneous non-tumorigenic cancer cells. Even more, CSC have an inherent high resistance to chemotherapeutic agents that leads to recurrence and poor long-term survival, especially in lung cancer patients. CSC-targeting A-769662 mw agents are now undergoing in vitro and in vivo studies, some of which have provided promising results for further clinical studies setting. In this article we review the concept of CSC from the perspective of tumor biology, including the origin of CSC and its biomarkers. As lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, we focus on the properties and clinical implications of lung CSC.”
“Objective: To determine the association between Chinese or South Asian ethnicity and adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes for women with gestational diabetes compared to the general population. Methods: A cohort study was conducted using population-based health care databases in Ontario, Canada. All 35,577 women aged 15-49 with gestational diabetes who had live births between April 2002 and March 2011 were identified.

Larger females tended to lay more unfertilized eggs after copulat

Larger females tended to lay more unfertilized eggs after copulating with previously mated males. However, copula duration was not influenced by a male’s number of previous copulations, and therefore apparently not by his current sperm stores. Nevertheless, copula duration varied with male size, with small males copulating longer, and with female size, as copulations lasted

longer with larger females, suggesting that males are investing more sperm in larger, more fecund females. While male copula adjustments to their own nutrition and body size may be simple (proximate) physiological responses, responses to female size indicate Selleck Wnt inhibitor more strategic and sophisticated sperm-allocation strategies than previously thought.”
“Background:\n\nNodal involvement is one of the most significant prognostic factors in early-stage vulvar cancer.\n\nAims:\n\nTo determine the diagnostic accuracy of sentinel lymph Ruboxistaurin research buy node (SLN) detection in early-stage vulvar cancer and to describe the characteristics of metastatic lymph node involvement.\n\nMethods:\n\nOf 23 women with early-stage squamous cell vulvar cancer included in the study, five had lateral lesions and 18 had midline lesions. SLN detection was performed by using a radioactive tracer and blue dye, followed by radical vulvectomy or radical wide excision with uni/bilateral inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy,

depending on tumour size and localization. SLNs were subsequently examined with haematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry.\n\nResults:\n\nThe SLN detection was successful in all 23 women (100%) and in 38 of 41 groins (92.3%) tested. The total number of SLNs was 67, with an average of 1.76 per groin. In total, 20 positive SLNs were detected in 14 of 23 patients. From a total of 20 positive SLNs, micrometastases were found in five SLNs and isolated tumour cells in one SLN. We experienced one case with a false negativity of SLN. Sensitivity, negative predictive value, accuracy and false negativity of SLN detection were 93.3%, 88.8%, 95.6% and 7.1% respectively.\n\nConclusion:\n\nThe

Epigenetics inhibitor SLN biopsy performed by an experienced team is a feasible method, with high accuracy in patients with early-stage vulvar cancer. Prognostic value of micrometastases should be confirmed in further studies.”
“Objective: We used a web version of Respondent-Driven Sampling (webRDS) to recruit a sample of young adults (ages 18-24) and examined whether this strategy would result in alcohol and other drug (AOD) prevalence estimates comparable to national estimates (National Survey on Drug Use and Health [NSDUH]). Method: We recruited 22 initial participants (seeds) via Facebook to complete a web survey examining AOD risk correlates. Sequential, incentivized recruitment continued until our desired sample size was achieved.

Hypovitaminosis D is highly prevalent in SLE as a result of avoid

Hypovitaminosis D is highly prevalent in SLE as a result of avoidance of sunshine, photoprotection, renal insufficiency and the use of medications such as glucocorticoids, anticonvulsants, antimalarials and

the calcineurin inhibitors, which alter the metabolism of vitamin D or downregulate the functions of the vitamin D receptor. IPI-145 research buy Low levels of vitamin D correlate with disease activity, and is associated with osteoporosis, fatigue and certain cardiovascular risk factors in SLE patients. This review updates the recent evidence on the relationship between vitamin D status and the onset, activity and complications of SLE, and summarizes the recommendations for vitamin D supplementation.”
“Material properties play Selleckchem CA4P a significant role in pharmaceutical processing. The impact of roller compaction (RC) and tablet compression on solid fraction (SF), tensile strength (TS) and flexural modulus (FM) of Avicel DG [co-processed excipient with 75% microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and 25% anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate (DCPA)], lactose and 1: 1 Mixture of the two was studied. Materials were roller compacted at different force and roller type and compressed into tablets over a range of compression pressures (CP). SF, TS and FM were determined for ribbons and tablets. Roller force

was a significant variable affecting SF while roller type was not. Both SF and TS of tablets increased with CP with Avicel DG exhibiting greater TS than that of 1: 1 Mixture while tablets of lactose had the lowest TS. The TS of tablets decreased exponentially with tablet porosity. Ribbon of Avicel DG had higher TS and lower SF than lactose and greater reworkability. This is attributed to plastic deformation of MCC resulting in high degree of bonding and fragmentation

of DCPA that fills the void spaces during tablet compression. The lack of significant increase in SF and low tablet TS for lactose upon compression is likely due to its brittle fragmentation and some elastic recovery as shown by the high FM.”
“The trigynaspid mite family Parantennulidae is reviewed and Parantennulus is re-diagnosed based on the type series in the Berlese Acaroteca. The family Parantennulidae is currently composed of five species in three known genera (Parantennulus, Autophagy Compound Library price Diplopodophilus, and Micromegistus), and along with the families of Philodanidae and Promegistidae, it constitutes the superfamily Parantennuloidea. A key to genera and species of the family based on male is provided. The type specimens of Diplopodophilus antennophoroides Willmann collected from the millipede Apfelbeckia lendenfeldi in Karst caves in western Balkan peninsula appear to have been lost. This species is in need of recollection and study.”
“Purpose: This study examined relationships between verbal abuse from nurse colleagues and demographic characteristics, work attributes, and work attitudes of early career registered nurses (RNs).

(c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc Dev Psychobiol 56: 73-85, 2014 “

(c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 56: 73-85, 2014.”
“High temperature affects numerous biochemical and physiological traits in plants. Primary leaves of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were collected from plants grown under a control temperature (day/night regime of 23/19 degrees C) or a high temperature (day/night regime of 33/29 degrees C) for 16, 22, 28, 32 or 42 d. Leaves of sunflower BMS-777607 mouse plants exposed to high temperature

exhibited decreased growth, as reflected by lower specific leaf mass and reduced leaf area as compared with controls. A superior decrease in soluble protein content during leaf life span in plants grown at high temperature relative to control plants (70% vs. 45%, respectively) suggests that high temperature promotes soluble protein degradation in leaves. High temperature also reduces net photosynthetic rate (P-N) possibly by decreasing the content in photosynthetic pigments and the stomatal conductance (g(s)). The activity of nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase decreased while deaminating activity in glutamate dehydrogenase increased in leaves exposed to high temperature. Our results suggest selleck products that high temperature induced early senescence in sunflower leaves, probably as a result of an accumulation of soluble sugars and the associated decrease in starch levels. Oxidative damage resulting from increased H2O2

accumulation and a decline in antioxidant activity may have also contributed to accelerated senescence of primary leaves at high temperature.”
“Stem and progenitor cells maintain the tissue they reside in for life by regulating the balance between proliferation and differentiation. How this is done is not well understood. Here, we report that the human exosome maintains progenitor cell function. The expression of several subunits of the exosome were found to be enriched in epidermal progenitor cells, which were required to retain

proliferative capacity and to prevent premature differentiation. Loss of PM/Scl-75 also known this website as EXOSC9, a key subunit of the exosome complex, resulted in loss of cells from the progenitor cell compartment, premature differentiation, and loss of epidermal tissue. EXOSC9 promotes self-renewal and prevents premature differentiation by maintaining transcript levels of a transcription factor necessary for epidermal differentiation, GRHL3, at low levels through mRNA degradation. These data demonstrate that control of differentiation specific transcription factors through mRNA degradation is required for progenitor cell maintenance in mammalian tissue.”
“Background Vaccination with hypoallergenic recombinant Bet v 1 derivatives (Bet v 1 fragments and Bet v 1 trimer) is associated with the induction of IgG antibodies specific to natural Bet v 1.

Materials and methods: Twenty-one healthy male professional socce

Materials and methods: Twenty-one healthy male professional soccer players, average 23.2 (+/- 3.6) years old, without history of injury were

selected. The athletes were assessed in an isokinetic dynamometer at three angular velocities: 60, 180 and 300 degrees/s, and from this assessment the peak of torque and calculated H:Q ratio at the three velocities were obtained. The triple hop distance was also used to calculate the hopped distance in meters. Results: No significant difference was found between the lower extremities (dominant and non-dominant) (p = 0.23). Also, a weak relationship between extensor torque and functional test at the three velocities was observed (Dominant: 60 degrees/s_r = 0.38; 180 find more degrees/s_r = 0.43*; 300 degrees/s_r = 0.26. Non dominant: 60 degrees/s_r = 0.36; 180 degrees/s_r = 0.30; 300 degrees/s_r = 0.48*) (*p <= 0.05). PP2 cost Similar results were found for H:Q ratio (Dominant: 60_r = 0.01; 180_r = 0.11; 300_r = -0.02. Non-dominant: 60_r = -0.20; 180_r = -0.15;

300_r = -0.18). Conclusion: Due to a weak relationship, the isokinetic test cannot be replaced by the triple hop distance (functional test) for muscular function assessment.”
“After modeling the large-scale climate response patterns of leaf unfolding, leaf coloring and growing season length of evergreen and deciduous French temperate trees, we predicted the effects of eight future climate scenarios on phenological events. We used the ground observations

from 103 temperate forests (10 species and 3,708 trees) from the French Renecofor Network and for the period 1997-2006. We applied RandomForest algorithms to predict phenological events from climatic Crenigacestat and ecological variables. With the resulting models, we drew maps of phenological events throughout France under present climate and under two climatic change scenarios (A2, B2) and four global circulation models (HadCM3, CGCM2, CSIRO2 and PCM). We compared current observations and predicted values for the periods 2041-2070 and 2071-2100. On average, spring development of oaks precedes that of beech, which precedes that of conifers. Annual cycles in budburst and leaf coloring are highly correlated with January, March-April and October-November weather conditions through temperature, global solar radiation or potential evapotranspiration depending on species. At the end of the twenty-first century, each model predicts earlier budburst (mean: 7 days) and later leaf coloring (mean: 13 days) leading to an average increase in the growing season of about 20 days (for oaks and beech stands). The A2-HadCM3 hypothesis leads to an increase of up to 30 days in many areas.