PCR products were sequenced (GATC Biotech) and cellular interactors were identified by BLAST analysis as previously described . Literature curation of interactions between Small Molecule Compound Library flavivirus and cellular proteins Interactions retrieved from literature, describing binary interactions between cellular and flavivirus proteins, were extracted from VirHostNet knowledge base  after selleck chemical PubMed extensive curation.
Briefly, VirHostNet is an up to date knowledge base for the management and the analysis of proteome-wide virus-host interaction networks available at http://pbildb1.univ-lyon1.fr/virhostnet. A total of 16 protein-protein interactions were retrieved and added to our experimental data set. Protein-protein interaction Networks Human-human protein-protein interactions network The 120 human proteins targeted by NS3, NS5 or both flavivirus proteins LXH254 clinical trial were linked to form a network of 84 interactions involving 56 proteins by using the reconstructed human-human protein-protein interaction network provided
by VirHostNet . All the additional network features presented in the paper were obtained from VirHostNet as well. Visualization The virus-human and the human-human protein-protein interaction network graphics were performed using the networks GUESS tool http://graphexploration.cond.org. Statistical and topological analysis All the statistical analyses were performed with the R http://www.r-project.org statistical environment and the igraph R package http://cneurocvs.rmki.kfki.hu/igraph/ was used to compute network metrics. The degree k of a node v in a graph G is the number of edges that are incident to this node. The betweenness b of a node v in a graph G can be defined by the number of
shortest paths going through the node v and is normalized by twice the total number of protein pairs in the graph G (n*(n-1)). The equation used to compute betweenness centrality, b(v), for a node v is: where gij is the number Nintedanib nmr of shortest paths going from node i to j, i and j ∈ V and gij(v) the number of shortest paths from i to j that pass through the node v. Interconnectivity significance The overall statistical significance of the interconnectivity (number of protein-protein interactions) between flaviviruses interactors was assessed by a random resampling testing procedure (n = 10, 000 permutations). For each permutation, we randomly extracted as many proteins as the number of flaviviruses interactors from the human interactome, and the value of interconnectivity was assessed. The randomization procedure was weighted and corrected according to the connectivity of proteins in order to prevent inspections bias on highly studied proteins. A theoretical distribution was computed for the 10, 000 resampled values.