Images were scanned and densitometer analysis of the captured

Images were scanned and densitometer analysis of the captured image was per formed with BIO 1 D image analysis software. The sig nal intensities of test genes in different samples were normalized to the respective mouse GAPDH signal intensity. DNA microarray The focused, immune function targeted DNA microar ray system was constructed using synthesized oligonu cleotide probes as described in our previous study. Briefly, 228 immune function associated genes were selected and grouped into specific cellular immunologi cal functions, such as chemotaxis, antigen processing, maturation and signaling in dendritic cells, apoptosis, and other immune related activities. A number of non immune related, functional genes, and housekeeping genes were also included.

Oligonucleotide probes were designed and synthesized with a length of approximately 50 nucleotides to represent specifically these genes as defined by the U GET program as reported by Iyer et al. and our previous studies. This gene list is now freely available to the pub lic scientific community upon request. A two color CyDye system was used for determining the ratio of gene expression for test control set sample after different treatments. Reverse transcription and first strand cDNA labeling with amino allyl dUTP A total RNA sample was mixed with 3 ul of Oligo dT primer and heated at 70 C for 5 minutes, then allowed to cool for 10 minutes at room tempera ture. The reaction mixture, contain ing 4 ul of 5X first strand buffer, 2 ul of 0. 1 M DTT, 1 ul of a 20X nucleotide mixture, 1 ul AA dUTP and 1 ul of reverse transcription reaction, was incubated at 42 C for 1.

5 h. The reaction was terminated by addition of 2 ul of 2. 5 M NaOH and followed by incubation at 37 C for 15 min. The reaction mixture was neutralized with 10 ul of 2 M HEPES and the synthesized cDNA product was cleaned up with a Microcon purification kit. The cDNA pellet was then speed vacuum dried and resuspended in 15 ul water. Labeling of amino allyl modified cDNA with CyDye An aliquot of CyDye was resuspended in 15 ul fresh 0. 1 M NaHCO3 pH 9. 0, immediately prior to use in a labeling reaction. One ali quot of resuspended CyDye was then added to one tube of AA dUTP modified cDNA using Cy3 for control samples, and Cy5 for treated samples.

Tubes were mixed by stirring, and incubated at room tempera ture in the dark for 1 hour, after which 15 ul 4 hydroxy lamine was added to each coupling reaction, mixed well and incubated at room temperature Cilengitide in the dark, for a further 15 minutes. CyDye labeled cDNA was then puri fied using a DNA purification kit. The allyl modified cDNA pellet was then speed vacuum dried and resuspended in 5 ul water. Hybridization A probe was prepared in fresh hybridization solution consisting of 30% formamide, 5X SSC, 0. 1% SDS, and 0. 1 mg ml of a nucleic acid blocker, human Cot1 DNA.

The significance of the role of the YAP gene family in adaptation

The significance of the role of the YAP gene family in adaptation and tolerance to HMF is confirmed by growth responses of the deletion mutations. Single YAP gene deletion mutations were able to grow normally without HMF treatment. However, in the selleck chemicals llc presence of 15 mM HMF, mutations yap1, yap4, p5, and yap6 showed delayed growth compared with their parental strain. Among these, yap1 displayed a 4 day long lag phase, indicating a profound functional defect affected by the YAP1 gene. PDR family and PDR1 3 involved regulatory interactions Among the significantly induced genes by HMF, at least 15 genes were categorized into the PDR family. Many genes displayed consistent induced expressions ranging from 3 to 30 fold increases during the lag phase.

Gene products of these increased tran scripts were in the protein categories of drug toxin transport for TPO1 and TPO4, Transport ATPase for RSB1, and ABC transporters for PDR15. SNQ2, YOR1, PDR5, and PDR12 encoding proteins shared functions of all these three categories. In addi tion, many PDR proteins have functions such as ATP binding and chemical agent resistance. Most of these genes have the pleiotropic drug response ele ment in their promoter regions. HMF induced transcription factor genes PDR1 and PDR3 regulate gene expression under a large variety of unrelated chemical stress conditions by binding to the PDRE of target genes. Both Pdr1p and Pdr3p recognize CGG triplets oriented in opposite directions to form an inverted repeat, and able to form homodimers or heterodimers to activate target gene expression.

Many induced genes regulated by Pdr1p and or Pdr3p in this group are involved in export of both xenobiotic compounds and endogenous toxic metabolites using ATP binding cassette transpor ters, lipid composi tion of the plasma membrane, export of polyamines by polyamine transporters, DNA repairing, and other functions. At least eight genes induced by HMF in this study were regulated by both Pdr1p and Pdr3p. Pdr1p and Pdr3p also recognize and activate other subsets of genes. Pdr3p participates in certain processes that do not involve Pdr1p, such as reg ulating DNA damage inducible genes MAG1 and DDI1. Similarly, some genes are only regulated by Pdr1p, such as RSB1, ADH7, and PRE3. We also found that the PDR3 promoter contains two PDREs that can be autoregulated by itself in addition to being a reg ulon of Pdr1p. PDR1 and PDR3 also demon strated regulatory connections with a broad range of functional GSK-3 category genes as well as most active regula tory genes. PDR 1 and PDR3 gene deletion mutations were assayed to confirm their influence on the expression of the potential regulons.

3 g mL of luteinizing hormone that was generously provided by the

3 g mL of luteinizing hormone that was generously provided by the USDA, Beltsville, MD, 10% FBS, 0. 2 M sodium pyruvate and 2 mM glutamine. Mod ified Tyrodes Albumin Lactate Pyruvate media used in sperm preparation, removal of cumu lus cells from oocytes and in vitro fertiliza tion were prepared as described by Parrish selleckchem Tofacitinib et al. In vitro culture medium was a modified synthetic oviductal fluid supplemented with 3 mg mL of BSA, 0. 6 mM sodium pyruvate, 2% BME essential amino acids, 1% MEM non essential amino acids, and 100 g mL of penicillin and streptomycin. All trans retinol was dissolved in 100% ethanol, appropri ate dilutions made, and aliquots were stored at 80 C until use. Retinol was prepared fresh each month and checked on a spectrophotometer for accuracy.

The con centration of ethanol during maturation or culture was less than 0. 1%. Collection and in vitro maturation of oocytes Ovaries from mature, cycling cattle were obtained from an abbatoir and pooled. Cumulus oocyte comple es were quickly harvested by slicing follicles with a sterile surgical blade, and collecting them in OCM. Intact COCs with homogeneous ooplasm and two or more layers of cumulus cells were selected, washed, and appro imately 50 were transferred to 500 l of pre equil ibrated OMM, and matured for 22 23 hours in a 38. 5 C incubator with an atmosphere of 5. 0% CO2, ambient air, and saturated humidity. In vitro fertilization Fertilization was performed with combined semen from two bulls of proven fertility prepared accord ing to the method by Parrish and coworkers.

Briefly, spermatozoa were washed in a discontinuous Percoll gra dient by depositing semen on top of the Per coll layers and centrifuged for 15 minutes at 960 g. The pellet was removed and resuspended in SP TALP and cen trifuged for 8 minutes at 460 g. After removal of the super natant, the sperm sample was reconstituted in 500 L of IVF TALP for a final concentration of 1 106 spermato zoa mL. The plate was incubated for 22 hours at 38. 5 C in an atmosphere of 5. 0% CO2 and ambient air with satu rated humidity. In vitro culture Appro imately 18 hours after fertilization putative zygotes were denuded of cumulus cells by vorte ing in 500 l of HEPES TALP for four minutes. Putative zygotes were cultured in 500 L of mSOF for eight days in a 38. 5 C incubator in an atmos phere of 5% CO2, 7% O2 and 88% N2 with saturated humidity.

The mSOF medium was changed every 48 hours. Cleavage was assessed on Day 3 and blastocyst rate was calculated on Day 8. E perimental Design In the first e periment maturation medium Drug_discovery alone was supplemented with all trans retinol and embryos were allowed to develop under low o y gen conditions. In the second e periment all trans retinol was added only to embryo culture medium on days 1, 3, 5, and 7, and the embryos developed in a low o ygen atmosphere.

Glioblastoma continues to have

Glioblastoma continues to have KPT-330 mw very poor prog nosis despite advances in chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Many clinical cases of glioblastoma and glioblastoma cell lines e press constitutively activated STAT3. Overe pression of IL 6, an upstream regulator of STAT3 is also detected in glioblastoma and is a marker of malignancy. The persistent activation of STAT3 is in part, also attributable to an autocrine action of IL 6 in the glioblastoma cells. However, STAT3 was reported to play a pro oncogenic or tumor suppressive role depending on the the genetic background of the tumor. Our results showed that FLLL32 was a potent inhibitor in inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation and STAT3 DNA binding activity in human glioblastoma cell lines. Human glioblastoma cells were induced to apoptosis by the inhibition of STAT3 with FLLL32.

Furthermore, the inhibitory efficacy of FLLL32 in liver cancer cells was e amined. Liver cancer or hepatocellu lar carcinoma is one of the most serious of cancers. According to the American Cancer Society, the five year relative survival rates are currently at 11% for all stages, 7. 7% for regional metastasis, and 2. 9% for distant metas tasis. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop more effective treatments for liver cancer. Patients with any stage of liver cancer may appropriately be considered candidates for clinical trials using new inhibitors because of the poor response to chemotherapy as con ventionally used. The constitutive activation of STAT3 is frequently detected in clinical incidences of liver can cer and in more than 50% of human liver cancer cell lines but not in normal or non transformed human cells.

The constitutive activation of STAT3 in liver cancer is frequently due to the aberrant methylation and silencing of Suppressor of Cytokine signaling 1 and 3. Constitutive STAT3 signal ing contributes to liver cancer progression by promoting angiogenesis, survival, metastasis, and growth of liver cancer cells. Again, our data demonstrated that FLLL32 could efficiently inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation and induced apoptosis in four independent human liver cancer cell lines. These results indicate that FLLL32 also has potential as a therapeutic agent for liver cancer cells e pressing persistently activated STAT3. In addition, FLLL32 also potent to inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation and induce apoptosis in MDA MB 231 breast cancer cells.

The potency of FLLL32 was further confirmed in MDA MB 231 breast cancer enografts in mouse model in vivo. Therefore, FLLL32 is not only potent in cancer cells in vitro but also in tumor cells in animal model in vivo and may have future potential to target tumor cells that e press persistently activated STAT3 Cilengitide in cancer patients. Curcumin has been demonstrated as a dietary agent that can inhibit STAT3.

Results and Discussion Microarray gene expression profiles and va

Results and Discussion Microarray gene expression profiles and validation by qRT PCR We used Agilent whole human genome microarrays to measure relative gene expression in IMR 90 human fibroblast cells exposed to 0. 5 Gy a particles and in inhibitor Volasertib their bystanders at 0. 5, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 24 hours post exposure. The data set was comprised of three treat ment conditions at six time points, with four biologi cal replicates of each condition. The data were background corrected but not normalized in order to preserve dependence across time points. We have previously reported on the analysis of data at the 4 hour time point, and took the 238 genes responding significantly in that study as the focus for the present analysis.

Forty of these genes were selected on the basis of the lowest FDR for differential expression in the microarray analysis, and were analyzed by quantitative real time reverse transcription PCR to validate microarray measurements. The heat maps in Figure 1 depict the qRT PCR data as hier archically clustered logarithmically transformed median gene expression ratios after irradiation and bystander treatment. Figure 1 also shows close concordance between ratios obtained by the microarray and qRT PCR platforms. Overall, we found that qRT PCR meth ods can give higher expression ratios as compared with microarray measurements, as reported previously. We also confirmed previously observed gene expression patterns in irradiated and bystander treated samples. One such pattern was the biphasic response of a large group of inflammatory cytokine genes, including emo kine ligand genes.

The other pattern, a response of cell cycle and DNA damage genes reaching max imum at 4 6 hours after treatment, was more pro nounced in irradiated samples. Among the subset of genes analyzed here it was evident that there was more than one group of coordinately regulated genes, leading to our interest in developing an approach to group temporal profiles of gene expression in order to provide insight into regulatory nodes that may coor dinately control gene expression. Manually curating clusters for comparison validation of clustering methods To evaluate the quality of clustering between methods, we manually curated clusters. Of 80 possible microarray profiles confirmed by qRT PCR, 67 were selected, on the basis of pattern and known pathway information, as distinct and were grouped into AV-951 seven clusters, no early peak, no change, two peaks and two dips, two peaks and two dips with a shallow second dip, two peaks and one dip with a low magnitude first peak, two peaks and one dip with a high magnitude first peak, and down at 4 hours. The graphs in Additional File 1 depict the results of manually curated clustering.

Interestingly, microarray analysis revealed

Interestingly, microarray analysis revealed selleck chemicals llc that genes such as SMAD3 and SMAD4, which are the principal intracellular effectors of the TGFB family, GADD45A and GADD45B, which are implicated as stress sensors and activated by TGFB in a SMAD dependent manner, DUSP1, DUSP5, DUSP6 and DUSP13, which are stress inducible MAP kinase phos phatases, MAP kinase kinase kinase 8, JUN, which is the effector transcription factor of the JNK pathway, and IL6, IL8 and FAS, which are in flammatory cytokines, were all upregulated by Tax. These genes, expressed in response to Tax, are media tors of JNK and p38 activity. In addition, we found that the kinetics of altered expression of several genes related to pathways involving stress responsive MAPKs were closely correlated with the kinetics of the spatial and temporal patterns of cell cycle dynamics analyzed in time lapse imaging.

At 24 h post transfection with Tax expression vectors, the genes for IL8, SMAD3, CDKN1A, GADD45A, GADD45B and IL6 were sig nificantly upregulated and the number of Tax IRES CFP expressing cells were in G1 phase and underwent apoptosis started to increase at same timing. Thus, the present results suggest that Tax may induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by activating several genes related to stress response signaling pathways. This is supported by a recent publication showing that Tax, along with the activation of a stress kinase, can induce cell death. Furthermore, the present findings consist with those observed by previous microarray analysis stud ies of HTLV 1 infected T cells, which demonstrated that HTLV 1 infection upregulated JNK activation kinase 1, GADD45 and the inflammatory cytokine, IL1B, which are involved in MAPK stress response pathways.

Re cently, HTLV 1 Tax appeared indirectly to connect to cell cycle proteins such as SMAD3, SMAD4, GADD45A and GADD45B. Our microarray analysis results identified one of the genes upregulated by Tax as CDKN1A, which codes p21CIP1 WAF1, known as Cdk inhibitor 1. Again, this is in agreement with results from other microarray analyses showing that HTLV 1 infection and Tax expression upregulated p21CIP1 WAF1 in HTLV 1 infected T cells and the human Jurkat T cell line JPX 9, which ex press Tax under the control of an inducible promoter. Likewise, Tax has previously been shown to dra matically upregulate p21CIP1 WAF1 mRNA transcription and stabilization of p21CIP1 WAF1 in HeLa cells.

Interestingly, only minimal p21 WAF1 promoter activity appears to be induced by Tax. It is also known that basal levels of p21CIP1 WAF1 are required to promote GSK-3 TGFB mediated cell cycle arrest, whereas a lack of p21CIP1 WAF1 allows the induction of cell proliferation in response to TGFB. Indeed, the loss of p21CIP1 WAF1 and p27KIP1 from HOS cells apparently allows HTLV 1 and Tax induced G1 arrest to be bypassed.

The UDP glucuronosyltranferase UGT2B17 en zyme is the main steroi

The UDP glucuronosyltranferase UGT2B17 en zyme is the main steroid glucuronidation enzyme of the UGT isotopes with more than double the glucuronida tion activity compared to the second most active enzyme involved in glucuronidation of testosterone, UGT2A1. The metabolism of testosterone by UGT2B17 has been shown to differ between individuals selleck kinase inhibitor owing to the varia tions in the expression of UGT2B17, which has been found to alter with ethnicity, affecting the excreted ster oid concentrations. In in vitro studies, the rate of testosterone glucuronidation has also been shown to be reduced with inhibitors of UGT2B17, such as non ster oidal anti inflammatory drugs. Whilst various drugs and compounds are glucuronidated as a substrate and inhibit UGT2B17, little is known about the inhibi tory effects common dietary substances could have on UGT2B17 and testosterone glucuronidation.

Recently, green and white teas and purified catechin constituents have been shown to inhibit the key testos terone glucuronidation enzyme UGT2B17 in a supersome based assay. Red wine is another rich source of phenolic compounds that have been found to exert anti oxidant health benefits in humans. Given the inhibitory effects of green and white tea on UGT2B17, along with the debate on red wine and pros tate cancer, it is timely to investigate if phenolic com pounds in red wine have an inhibitory effect on testosterone metabolism and excretion. The aim of this study was to analyze the inhibitory effects of a dietary red wine sample and the common phenolic compounds found in red wine, independent of the effects of alcohol, on the glucuronidation of testos terone through the inhibition of UGT2B17.

A further aim was to study the potential inhibitory effect of the common wine by product 4 ethylphenol on testosterone glucuronidation. Materials and methods Materials Testosterone, acetonitrile, ethanol, gallic Carfilzomib acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and quercetin were purchased from Sigma Aldrich. Dimethyl sulfoxide, methanol and high performance liquid chromatography grade water were purchased from Fisher Scientific. The UGT2B17 enzymes where purchased as human UGT2B17 supersomes from BD Biosciences. UDPGA was purchased as a UGT reaction solution from BD Biosciences. The MgCl2 and Tris HCl buffers, along with alamethicin were purchased together as a UGT reac tion mixture from BD Biosciences. The red wine sample used was a Cabernet Syrah red wine pur chased from a local supermarket. All solvents used where HPLC grade. Methods For general screening, HPLC analysis of testosterone glucuronidation was conducted on an Agilent 1260 HPLC system using an Ascentis Supelco C18 column, 25 cm x 406 mm i. d, 5 uM at 25 C column temperature.

It appears that MB cells are more resistant to PEITC and taxol th

It appears that MB cells are more resistant to PEITC and taxol than MCF cells, and higher concentra tions of taxol did not further enhance the effect on growth inhibition. major clinical sellekchem limitations are neurotoxicity and cellular resistance after prolonged treatment. PEITC is a novel epigenetic agent with a dual effect of histone deacetylation and DNA methylation. This study found that the two agents have a profound synergistic inhibitory effect on the growth of two different breast cancer cell lines, MCF and MDA MB 231. The IC50 of PEITC and taxol decrease dramatically when the two chemicals are used in combination. These results suggest that it is highly possible to significantly reduce side effects of taxol while maintaining or enhancing clinical efficacy by combining the two drugs.

We hypothesize that by combining PEITC and taxol, it is possible to significantly reduce toxicity in vivo by reducing the dosage of taxol needed while maintaining clinical efficacy for breast cancer and other solid tumors. This hypothesis appears to be supported by this in vitro study, and can be tested further in mouse model carrying breast cancer xenografts. Novel agents targeting different molecular pathways are being actively studied for targeted cancer therapy. A recent study has shown that the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat can up regulate estrogen receptors and make breast cancer cells more sensitive to tamoxifen. A preliminary report from a recent clinical study seems to corroborate this laboratory finding, where patients with hormone refractory breast cancer showed responses to tamoxifen again after vorinostat treatment.

Since PEITC is a HDAC inhibitor as well as a tubulin targeting agent, it would be worthwhile to test the combination of PEITC and tamoxifen for therapy of hormone refractory breast cancer. Similar to previous reports, we also observed that very high concentrations of taxol did not further increase growth inhibition and apoptosis. This may be due to the fact that higher concentrations of taxol have the oppos ite effect on cell growth as reported earlier. The exact mechanism remains unclear. In conclusion, this is the first study to show that the combination of the epigenetic agent PEITC with the chemotherapeutic agent taxol exhibits a synergistic ef fect on growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

This novel strategy deserves further study in vivo. Background Chronic myeloid leukemia is a hematopoietic dis order characterized by unregulated proliferation of predom inantly myeloid cells in the bone marrow. BCR ABL fusion proteins resulting from the chromosomal transloca tion t cause CML. BCR ABL activity leads to uncontrolled cell prolifera tion, reduced apoptosis, AV-951 and malignant expansion of hematopoietic stem cell populations.

As secondary antibody anti mouse, anti rat or anti rabbit horsera

As secondary antibody anti mouse, anti rat or anti rabbit horseradish peroxidase conjugated anti bodies were used. Protein bands were visualized with Western Lightning ECL and detected with a luminescent image analyzer. For all western blots at least three repetitions were performed. ELISA Microarray Phosphorylated proteins were quantified using an Array Tube based sand wich ELISA microarray, as previously described. 10 ul of protein sample was applied on the microarray. Phos phorylated proteins were detected using commercially available isotype specific capture antibodies and biotiny lated phospho specific detection antibodies. For the detection the microarray was incubated with streptavidin HRP conjugate followed by dye precipitation reaction using TrueBlue.

Transmission was measured with the Arraymate reader and protein concentration was quantified using standard calibration surfaces as described in Holenya et al. Background Predicting tumor response to radiotherapy is one of the major issues in cancer treatment. Predicting radiosensi tivity is important for improving clinical outcome and for personalized medicine decisions of the treatment needed, doses, and fractionation schedules. Under standing the mechanism of radiosensitiviy is also a major issue in identifying effective biomarkers and potential drug targets of radiosensitivity. Assays evaluating radiosensitivity have been developed and tested over the last 25 years. Recently, compre hensive gene expression analysis with high throughput technology has been used to identify radiosensitivity classifiers as well as to elucidate the radiosensitivity mechanism in many cancer types including colorectal, cervical, breast, head and neck cancer.

As treat ment response is related to the complex genetic biology of the cancer and host, biological interaction and factors that determine tumor response through the simultan eous genetic analysis of thousands of genes should be considered in predicting treatment outcome. The cancer cell line panel of the National Cancer Institute has been widely used for drug screening based on relevant gene expression. Although promising, these studies are confined to a single platform microarray and further validation and a larger dataset are needed. Moreover, individually identifying every gene with a statistically sig nificant response is not sufficient as a biological explan ation.

For this reason, gene set analysis is necessary, along with defining the biological processes or pathways in expression analysis. In this study, to identify a common radiosensitivity gene signature and relevant Dacomitinib biological processes from a large amount of data from multiple platforms, we ana lyzed four types of transcript microarray data from radiosensitivity profiling of the NCI 60 cell line panel.

However, simultan eous exposure to tozasertib and HDAC inhibitors

However, simultan eous exposure to tozasertib and HDAC inhibitors in long term survival assays may selleckchem Ivacaftor result in enhanced cell death following treatment with low concentrations of these compounds. Efficacy of cotreatment with HDAC and Aurora kinase inhibitors in BCR ABL positive primary CML cells Because cotreatment with HDAC and Aurora kinase inhibitors induces significant inhibition of growth in BCR ABL expressing cell lines, we next investigated the effects of these compounds in BCR ABL positive primary CML samples and blastic phase samples. Indeed, treatment with tozasertib and vorinostat or pracinostat inhibited cell growth in BCR ABL positive CML samples and blastic phase samples. Although we did perform statis tical analyses of the data, the sample size was too small to obtain meaningful statistics.

Intracellular signaling was also examined. Cotreatment with both tozasertib and vorinostat or pracinostat decreased apparent Crk L phosphorylation, while apparent PARP and acetyl histone H4 activity was increased, again indicating the potential efficacy of tozasertib and vorinostat or pracinostat in BCR ABL positive primary cells. Conclusion In the current study, HDAC inhibitors induced apoptosis in BCR ABL positive leukemia cells. In particular, pro found inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis were observed in response to HDAC inhibitors in BCR ABL positive K562 and mouse pro B Ba F3 cells with ectopic expression of wt and mutant T315I. This response was amplified by cotreatment with an Aurora kinase inhibitor.

In this study, we also demonstrated that Aurora kinase proteins were degraded by vorinostat or pracinostat in a dose dependent manner. Although the levels of Aurora family proteins were not directly reduced by tozasertib treatment, tozasertib inhibited the expression of HDAC proteins. As such, our data indicated that vorinostat or pracinostat and tozasertib affected the activities of both Aurora kinase and HDAC, in turn in creasing Brefeldin_A antitumor activity in this system. Clinical trials using tozasertib have been discontinued. However, other pan Aurora BCR ABL dual inhibitors may exhibit a similar {profile, and these continue to be studied clinically. Our findings suggest that cotreatment with these compounds and specific molecular targeted drugs could benefit pa tients with leukemic BCR ABL cells that are resistant to more conventional treatments. Methods Reagents and antibodies The HDAC inhibitors vorinostat and pracinostat were provided by Selleck Chemicals LLC. Tozasertib was kindly donated by Vertex Phar maceuticals Inc. Stock solutions of vorinostat, pracinostat, and tozasertib were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide and subsequently diluted to the desired concentration in growth medium.