The challenge is thus to devise an appropriate strategy to identi

The challenge is thus to devise an appropriate strategy to identify struggling students earlier in the semester. Using questionnaires, students were asked about attendance, financing of their studies, and relevance of physiology. After the first class test, failing students were invited to complete a second questionnaire. In addition, demographic data were also collected and analyzed. Correlation analyses

were undertaken of performance indicators based on the demographical data collected. The 2011 class comprised mainly sport science students (57%). The pass rate of sport science students was lower than the pass rates of other students (42% vs. 70%, P smaller than 0.001). Most students were positive about

physiology and recognized its relevance. Key issues identified were problems understanding concepts and terminology, poor study environment GW4869 Apoptosis inhibitor and skills, and lack of matriculation biology. The results of the first class test and final module marks correlated well. It is clear from this study that student performance in the first class test is a valuable tool to identify struggling students and that appropriate testing should be held as early as possible.”
“Silver is a metal with Bromosporine concentration well-known antibacterial effects. This makes silver an attractive coating material for medical devices for use inside the body, e.g. orthopaedic prostheses and catheters used in neurosurgery as it has been found to reduce the high risk of infections. Lately, the use of nano-silver particles in the industry, e.g. woven

into fabrics and furniture has increased, and thus the exposure to silver particles in daily life increases. To study the effect of metallic silver particles on nervous tissue, we injected micron-sized silver particles into the mouse brain by stereotactic procedures. After Rabusertib in vitro 7, 14 days and 9 months, the silver-exposed animals had considerable brain damage seen as cavity formation and inflammation adjacent to the injected metallic silver particles. The tissue loss involved both cortical and hippocampal structures and resulted in enlargement of the lateral ventricles. Autometallographic silver enhancement showed silver uptake in lysosomes of glia cells and neurons in the ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus alongside a minor uptake on the contralateral side. Silver was also detected in ependymal cells and the choroid plexus. After 9 months, spreading of silver to the kidneys was seen. Cell counts of immunostained sections showed that metallic silver induced a statistically significant inflammatory response, i.e. increased microgliosis (7 days: p < 0.0001; 14 days: p < 0.01; 9 months: p < 0.0001) and TNF-alpha expression (7 and 14 days: p < 0.0001; 9 months: p = 0.91). Significant astrogliosis (7, 14 days and 9 months: p < 0.0001) and increased metallothionein (MT I + II) expression (7 and 14 days: p < 0.0001; 9 months: p < 0.

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