“Stents have come to be well-known devices and are being u

“Stents have come to be well-known devices and are being used widely in numerous branches of medicine. It is intriguing that the word “stent” actually

derives from the name of a dentist, Charles Stent, who developed a material to obtain dental impressions. There are numerous other theories as to the origin of the word and how its use has been extended to various fields in medicine. The origin of intravascular stenting took place as early as 1912, but it was not until Charles Dotter reinvented the wheel in 1969 that further development took place in the technology and techniques of stenting. Intracranial stenting is a relatively new and rapidly developing field that came into being not more than 12 years ago. The authors describe the life and works of Charles Stent, discuss the possible

origins of the word stent, see more and discuss how intravascular and intracranial stenting came into existence.”
“John Cunningham virus (JCV), the etiological agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), contains a hyper-variable non-coding control region usually detected in urine of healthy individuals as archetype form and in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of PML patients as rearranged form. We report a case of HIV-related PML with Selleckchem Daporinad clinical, immunological and virological data longitudinally collected. On admission (t0), after 8-week treatment with a rescue highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the patient showed a CSF-JCV load of 16,732 gEq/ml, undetectable HIV-RNA

and an increase of CD4+ cell count. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed PML-compatible lesions without contrast enhancement. We considered PML-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome as plausible because of the sudden onset of GNS-1480 clinical trial neurological symptoms after the effective HAART. An experimental JCV treatment with mefloquine and mirtazapine was added to steroid boli. Two weeks later (t1), motor function worsened and MRI showed expanded lesions with cytotoxic oedema. CSF JCV-DNA increased (26,263 gEq/ml) and JCV viremia was detected. After 4 weeks (t2), JCV was detected only in CSF (37,719 gEq/ml), and 8 weeks after admission (t3), JC viral load decreased in CSF and JCV viremia reappeared. The patient showed high level of immune activation both in peripheral blood and CSF. He died 4 weeks later. Considering disease progression, combined therapy failure and immune hyper-activation, we finally classified the case as classical PML. The archetype variant found in CSF at t0/t3 and a rearranged sequence detected at t1/t2 suggest that PML can develop from an archetype virus and that the appearance of rearranged genotypes contribute to faster disease progression.”
“Background and purpose It has been hypothesized that exposure to anaesthetic agents, some of which are chemically related to organic solvents, may affect the risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS).

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