\n\nOBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review to examine longitudinal studies of cognitive and/or motor outcome after cardiac surgery during early infancy.\n\nMETHODS: Electronic searches were performed in Medline, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (Cinahl), and Embase (1998-2008). The search strategy yielded SBE-β-CD order 327 articles, of which 65 were reviewed. Eight cohorts provided prospective data
regarding the cognitive and/or motor outcome of infants who had undergone surgery for congenital heart disease before 6 months of age. Two authors, Ms Snookes and Dr Gunn, independently extracted data and presented results according to 3 subgroups for age of follow-up: early development (1 to <3 years); preschool age (3-5 TPCA-1 order years); and school age (>5 to 17 years). Weighted analysis was undertaken to pool the results of studies when appropriate.\n\nRESULTS: All of the identified studies reported results of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development for children
younger than the age of 3. Outcome data as reported by the Bayley Scales were combined for infants assessed at 1 year of age, revealing a weighted mean Mental Development Index of 90.3 (95% confidence interval: 88.9-91.6) and Psychomotor Development Index of 78.1 (95% confidence interval: 76.4-79.7). Additional analysis was limited by a lack of data at preschool and school age.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: With this review we identified a limited number of prospective studies that systematically addressed outcome in patients at the highest risk. These studies consistently revealed cognitive and motor delay in children after cardiac surgery during early infancy. Additional investigation is required to ascertain the consequences of such impairment during later childhood and into adult life. Pediatrics 2010;
“CE is gaining great popularity as a well-established separation technique for many fields such as pharmaceutical research, clinical application, environmental monitoring, and food analysis, owing to its high resolving power, rapidity, and small amount of samples and reagents required. However, the sensitivity in CE analysis is still considered as being inferior to that in HPLC see more analysis. Diverse enrichment methods and techniques have been increasingly developed for overcoming this issue. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in enrichment techniques containing off-line preconcentration (sample preparation) and on-line concentration (sample stacking) to enhancing sensitivity in CE for trace analysis over the last 5 years. Some relatively new cleanup and preconcentration methods involving the use of dispersive liquidliquid microextraction, supercritical fluid extraction, matrix solid-phase dispersion, etc., and the continued use and improvement of conventional SPE, have been comprehensively reviewed and proved effective preconcentration alternatives for liquid, semisolid, and solid samples.