In the United States, 109 (4 6%) of isolates collected from human

In the United States, 109 (4.6%) of isolates collected from humans, 77 (15.7%) from retail meat, and 140 (10.6%) from food animals displayed

decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins (DSC). Among the Canadian retail meat and food animal isolates, 52 (13.0%) and 42 (9.4%) displayed DSC. All isolates displaying DSC were screened for beta-lactamase genes (bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(CMY), bla(CTX-M), and bla(OXA-1)) by polymerase chain reaction. At least one beta-lactamase gene was detected in 74/109 (67.9%) isolates collected from humans, and the blaCMY genes were most prevalent (69/109; 63.3%). Similarly, the blaCMY genes predominated among the beta-lactamase-producing isolates collected from retail meats and food animals. Three isolates from humans harbored a bla(CTX-M-15) gene. No animal or retail meat isolates harbored a bla(CTX-M) or bla(OXA-1) gene. A bla(TEM) gene was found in 5 human, 9 retail meat, and 17 animal click here isolates. Although serotype distributions varied among human, retail meat, and animal sources, overlap in

bla(CMY)-positive serotypes across sample sources supports meat and food-animal sources as reservoirs for human infection.”
“Introduction Synovial cells are potential sources of inflammatory mediators in bacterial-induced arthritis but their involvement in the inflammatory response to Candida albicans-induced septic arthritis is largely unknown.\n\nMethods C59 Wnt research buy Primary cultures of rat synovial fibroblasts were infected with C. albicans (ATCC90028). Immunocytochemistry, western blotting, and RT-PCR were performed to assess cyclooxygenase 2 induction. Phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) following infection in the absence or presence of U0126 was assessed by western blotting LY2603618 price whilst prostaglandin E2 production was measured by ELISA. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF kappa B) translocation was evaluated

by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay.\n\nResults Infection of synovial fibroblasts with C. albicans resulted in cyclo-oxygenase 2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production. Cyclo-oxygenase 2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production was dependent upon extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation, associated with activation of NF kappa B and significantly elevated in the presence of laminarin, an inhibitor of dectin-1 activity. Synovial fibroblasts adjacent to C. albicans hyphae aggregates appeared to be the major contributors to the increased levels of cyclo-oxygenase 2 and phosphorylated extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2.\n\nConclusions C. albicans infection of synovial fibroblasts in vitro results in upregulation of cyclo-oxygenase 2 and prostaglandin E2 by mechanisms that may involve activation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 and are associated with NF kappa B activation.”

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