“Acanthamoeba, an opportunistic protozoan pathogen, is ubi

“Acanthamoeba, an opportunistic protozoan pathogen, is ubiquitous in nature, and therefore plays a predatory role and helps control microbial communities in the ecosystem. These Acanthamoeba Selleckchem LDK378 species are recognized as opportunistic human pathogens that may cause blinding keratitis and rare but fatal granulomatous encephalitis. To date, there is not a single report demonstrating Acanthamoeba isolation

and identification from environmental sources in Pakistan, and that is the aim of this study. Acanthamoeba were identified by morphological characteristics of their cysts on non-nutrient agar plates seeded with Escherichia coli. Additionally, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed with genus-specific primers followed by direct sequencing of the PCR product for molecular identification. selleck screening library Furthermore, our PCR and sequencing results confirmed seven different pathogenic and nonpathogenic genotypes, including T2-T10, T4, T5, T7, T15, T16, and T17. To the best of our knowledge, we have identified and isolated Acanthamoeba sp., for the first time, from water resources of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. There is an urgent need to address

(1) the pathogenic potential of the identified genotypes and (2) explore other environmental sources from the country to examine the water quality and the current status of Acanthamoeba species in Pakistan, which may be a potential Dinaciclib threat for public health across the country.”
“Eight different functional monomers were used with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker and molsidomine as a template to obtain molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). Non-covalent interactions between molsidomine and each functional monomer in DMSO prior to thermal bulk polymerization were utilized. On the basis of calculated imprinting factors, MIP prepared

with N,N’-diallyltartaramide was chosen for further investigations. Examination of interactions in the prepolymerization complex between molsidomine and N,N’-diallyltartaramide was performed using the Job method. The absorbance of isomolar solutions reaching a maximum for the molar ratio of template to monomer equal to 1:4. Scatchard analysis was used for estimation of the dissociation constants and the maximum amounts of binding sites. The polymer based on N,N’-diallyltartaramide has two classes of heterogeneous binding sites characterized by two values of K(d) and two B(max): K(d)(1) = 1.17 mM(-1) and B(max)(1) = 0.8 mu mol/mg for the higher affinity binding sites, and K(d)(2) = 200 mu M(-1) and B(max)(2) = 2.05 mu mol/mg for the lower affinity binding sites. Furthermore, effects of pH and organic solvent on binding properties of MIP and NIP were investigated, together with release of molsidomine from both MIP and NIP.

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