In addition, heart rates (HR) were obtained at one min and three

In addition, heart rates (HR) were obtained at one min and three min intervals during the exercise and the recovery phases. The study involved four visits to the laboratory, initially for measurement of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), and then to undertake a dehydration and rehydration protocol to measure the efficacy of the three rehydration conditions on performance. The protocol was as follows: 1) 60 min of moderate exercise in hot conditions (27-33°C); 2) 60 min of recovery, individualized maximum treadmill test to voluntary exhaustion; and 3) 60 min of recovery and rehydration with fluid (replacement of lost weight), followed by individualized maximum treadmill

test to voluntary exhaustion. During the first visit to the laboratory, the VX-680 clinical trial procedures were outlined and a 5 min treadmill warm-up was conducted to establish the learn more treadmill speed that would be used for the graded maximal exercise test. This running pace corresponded to a

maximal steady state effort, a heart rate (HR) of 150 beats per min (approximately 80% predicted maximal HR) and/or a perceived exertion of 15 on the Borg scale. After a 5 to 10 min rest, the subjects ran at their individualized pace starting at 0% grade, which was increased 2% every two min until voluntary exhaustion. Subjects were then assigned in random order to the three rehydration conditions. The investigator running the NSC23766 tests (PGS) was blinded to the rehydration conditions, as were the subjects. The composition of the sports drinks was similar in osmolality but varied per unit volume in terms of energy content, energy composition, electrolytes, vitamins and amino acids as shown in Table 2. The exact weight of fluid lost between the initial weigh-in and after the dehydration test was provided to the subjects who consumed the liquid the in unmarked containers over approximately 30 min. Table 2 Composition of Gatorade, Rehydrate and Crystal Light Ingredient Gatorade (240 mL) Rehydrate (240 mL) Crystal Light (240 mL) Calories 50 49 5 Osmolality (mOsm) 290-303 274 NA

Total Carbohydrate (g) 14 12.5 0 Sugars (g) 14 9.7 0 Potassium (mg) 30 104 0 Sodium (mg) 110 104 35 Calcium (mg) 0 104 0 Magnesium (mg) 0 28 0 Chromium (as polynicotinate) (mcg) 0 5 0 L-Glutamine (mg) 0 209 0 Glutathione (mg) 0 50 0 L-Arginine (mg) 0 93 0 Pyridoxine alpha- ketoglutarate (mg) 0 105 0 Ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10) (mcg) 0 11 0 Thiamine (B1 – mcg) 0 160 0 Riboflavin (B2 – mcg) 0 178 0 Niacin (mg) 0 2 0 Pantothenic acid (B5 – mg) 0 1 0 Vitamin C (mg) 0 125 0 Vitamin A (as beta-carotene & vitamin A palmitate – IU) 0 1044 0 Other ingredients: Sucrose syrup, fructose syrup, glucose, citric acid Fructose, maltodextrin (2.8 g), malic acid, dextrose, sucralose, malic acid   During subsequent visits to the laboratory, the subjects’ weights were recorded without clothing.

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