Afterwards, the null mutants were further selected after inductio

Afterwards, the null mutants were further selected after induction of sacBR in TSB2 agar plates supplemented with 5% sucrose. The in-frame deletions were confirmed by sequencing a PCR-amplified DNA fragment containing each mutation. Phenotypic assays Growth rate The effect of the mutations on the growth rate of these bacteria was analysed. Briefly, ON cultures were prepared on TSB2 and diluted to an initial density of approximately 0.01 and incubated

for 10 h at 30°C with continuous agitation. Bacterial growth was estimated from selleck chemicals llc OD readings at 600 nm taken at different intervals. Protease activity Extracellular protease activity was evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. For qualitative assay the parental as well Selleck GSK1120212 as the mutant strains were streaked onto TSA2 and MA supplemented with 1%, 1.5% or 2% skimmed milk and incubated for a maximum of 48 h. The presence of a casein degradation halus was considered a positive result. The quantitative assay was performed as previously described using the check details azocasein assay as previously described

[29], using O/N supernatants of the strains to be tested. Biofilm formation Biofilm formation was evaluated using 96-well polystyrene cell-culture treated microtiter plates after 48 h incubation using the crystal violet staining method, as previously described [30]. Briefly, O/N cultures of the corresponding strain to be tested were diluted into fresh TSB2 or MB media to get approximately an optical density of 0.01 OD600 nm units. A total of 200 μl were dispensed in each well and incubated statically in a wet chamber for 48 h at 30°C. A minimum of four

replicates in three independent assays were measured. Motility MA and TSA2 swimming plates containing 0.25% agar were used to assess the effect of LuxS and LuxR in motility. An overnight culture of the corresponding strain to be analysed was diluted 1:100 and a drop Edoxaban containing 10 μl of the sample was inoculated in the middle of the plate and the movement of the strains was monitored up to 48 h by measuring the diameter reached by the bacteria. Detection of siderophores The chrome azure assay (CAS) was used to detect the production of siderophores in both the mutants and wild type strains, as described in [31] with minor modifications. Briefly, the nutrient medium used for the growth of the bacteria was TSA supplemented with 0.5% NaCl. Additionally, the ability of these strains to grow on iron depleted media was assessed using MA and TSA2 plates containing 0.2 mM ethylenediamine di(o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) (EDDA) chelating agent. Membrane protein profiling by mass spectrometry Membrane proteins from the mutants and wild type strains were extracted from 500 ml ON cultures. Briefly, the cultures were centrifuged for 10 min at 16,000 g and washed with PBS. The cells were suspended in 10 ml Tris 50 mM pH 8.0 and the suspension was frozen at −80°C. Successive rounds of freezing and thawing were performed.

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