7. Children and adolescents should only consider use
of ED or ES with parental approval after consideration of the amount of carbohydrate, caffeine, and other nutrients contained in the ED or ES and a thorough understanding of the potential side effects. 8. Indiscriminant use of ED or ES, especially if more than one serving per day is consumed, may lead to adverse events and harmful side effects. 9. Diabetics and individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular, metabolic, Selleck BTSA1 hepatorenal, and neurologic disease who are taking medications that may be affected by high glycemic load foods, caffeine, and/or other Selleckchem I-BET151 stimulants should avoid use of ED and/or ES unless approved by their physician. References 1. Froiland K, Koszewski W, Hingst J, Kopecky L: Nutritional VX-680 supplier supplement use among college athletes and their sources of information. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2004, 14:104–120.PubMed 2. Hoffman : Caffeine and Energy Drinks. Strength Cond J 2010, 32:15–20.CrossRef 3. Hoffman JR, Faigenbaum AD, Ratamess NA, Ross
R, Kang J, Tenenbaum G: Nutritional supplementation and anabolic steroid use in adolescents. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008, 40:15–24.PubMed 4. Petroczi A, Naughton DP, Pearce G, Bailey R, Bloodworth A, McNamee M: Nutritional supplement use by elite young UK athletes: fallacies of advice regarding efficacy. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2008, 5:22.PubMedCrossRef 5. Wolk BJ, Ganetsky M, Babu KM: Toxicity of energy drinks. Curr Opin Pediatr 2012, 24:243–251.PubMedCrossRef 6. Kerksick C, Harvey T, Stout J, Campbell B, Wilborn C, Kreider
R, Kalman D, Ziegenfuss T, Lopez H, Landis J, et al.: International Society of Sports Nutrition DCLK1 position stand: nutrient timing. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2008, 5:17.PubMedCrossRef 7. Goldstein ER, Ziegenfuss T, Kalman D, Kreider R, Campbell B, Wilborn C, Taylor L, Willoughby D, Stout J, Graves BS, et al.: International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2010, 7:5.PubMedCrossRef 8. Bonati M, Latini R, Galletti F, Young JF, Tognoni G, Garattini S: Caffeine disposition after oral doses. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1982, 32:98–106.PubMedCrossRef 9. Graham TE, Hibbert E, Sathasivam P: Metabolic and exercise endurance effects of coffee and caffeine ingestion. J Appl Physiol 1998, 85:883–889.PubMed 10. McLellan TM, Bell DG: The impact of prior coffee consumption on the subsequent ergogenic effect of anhydrous caffeine. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2004, 14:698–708.PubMed 11. Kovacs EM, Stegen J, Brouns F: Effect of caffeinated drinks on substrate metabolism, caffeine excretion, and performance. J Appl Physiol 1998, 85:709–715.PubMed 12. Oka H, Suzuki S, Suzuki H, Oda T: Increased urinary excretion of L-xylulose in patients with liver cirrhosis. Clin Chim Acta 1976, 67:131–136.PubMedCrossRef 13.