“We systematically reviewed research examining the association between gestational diabetes (GDM) and childhood overweight and obesity. We identified studies from three sources: (1) a PubMed search of articles published between January 1990-January 2011, (2) reference lists of publications from the PubMed search, and (3) reference lists of review articles. We included studies that examined GDM separately from pregestational diabetes and childhood overweight or obesity defined as BMI AZD6094 nmr > 85th or 95th percentile. A total of 12 studies were included in the systematic review. Crude odds ratios for the relationship between GDM and childhood overweight or obesity
ranged from 0.7 to 6.3; in 8 studies, the associations were not statistically significant. In only 3 studies were results adjusted for any confounders; in the 2 that adjusted for prepregnancy obesity, the GDM and childhood overweight or obesity associations were attenuated and not statistically
significant after adjustment. This paper demonstrates inconsistent evidence of an association between GDM and offspring overweight and obesity due to the methodological limitations GS-7977 datasheet of existing studies. Recommendations for future research are presented, which address methodological challenges.”
“BACKGROUND: Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera sp BOL13 were compared for decolorization of azo dyes supplied individually or as a mixture. The dye decolorization was also evaluated during continuous treatment under non-sterile conditions using a lignocellulosic growth substrate. RESULTS: Bjerkandera
sp BOL13 showed the highest dye decolorization potential. This fungus was also found to support high decolorization of Remazol Red RR at an initial pH of 4-6 and when using straw as co-substrate. The fungus was evaluated for Remazol Red RR decolorization in a continuously fed packed-bed bioreactor operated under non-sterile conditions with 3 days of hydraulic retention time. JNK-IN-8 supplier When glucose was supplied as growth-substrate, decolorization efficiencies of 65-90% were maintained for 12 days in a bioreactor packed with wooden material. The decolorization efficiency was lower when glucose was not fed to the fungus or when a plastic material was used as packing. Higher manganese peroxidase and laccase activities were also recorded when the wood packing was used. Contamination caused a drop in decolorization efficiency after 17-19 days operation. CONCLUSIONS: The potential of Bjerkandera sp BOL13 for decolorization of azo dyes under non-sterile conditions using lignocellulosic growth substrates was demonstrated. Research is needed to reduce contamination under non-sterile conditions.