More detailed histological studies of the cortical areas followed

More detailed histological studies of the cortical areas followed by Camillo Golgi (1843�C1926) who developed the first staining of neurons [9] and their arborisation. This silver impregnation method enabled Santiago Ramon y Cajal (1852�C1934) to investigate in detail the pattern of axonal and dendrite KRX-0401 connections of the neuronal tissue [10]. For this work, both scientists were honoured with the Nobel Prize in 1906. The married couple Oscar and Cecilie Vogt (1870�C1959 and 1875�C1962, resp.) established the first institute dedicated entirely to neuroscience in Berlin where they integrated cytoarchitectonical and electrophysiological techniques for studies of the brain cortex [11]. Korbinian Brodmann (1868�C1918) worked at that institute and classified there in the first decade of 20th century the whole cortex into 45 distinct areas based on morphologic characteristics of the grey matter [12].

Besides the pathoanatomical studies, experiments with electrical stimulation became increasingly important for the understanding of cortical function. The first experimental electrical stimulation of the cortex of dogs was performed in 1870 by the two German neuroscientists Julius Eduard Hitzig (1838�C1907) and Gustav Theodor Fritsch (1838�C1927) [13]. They observed by stimulation of the frontal cortical areas involuntary movements in the contralateral extremities. The experimental Scotch neurologist David Ferrier (1843�C1928) published a detailed map of motor functions obtained by stimulation of brain cortex in different animal species in 1876.

He published his results under the title ��The function of the brain�� [14]. The significance of these results for neurosurgery was picked by one of the pioneers of neurosurgery in London, Victor Horsley (1857�C1916), who already published back in 1887 a map of motor cortical representation based on his experimental study on animals and partly intraoperative studies on humans [15]. Neurosurgery Entinostat was a unique opportunity to study cortical function intraoperatively also in humans and to obtain important data almost as side effect during the intervention. At the beginning of 20th century the neurophysiologist and later Nobel laureate Charles Scott Sherrington (1857�C1952) performed experiments to delineate the motor and the sensory cortex [16]. His map in opposition to previous studies was only a narrow strip on both sides of the Rolandic sulcus [17]. In 1900, Sherrington while working in Liverpool was attended during his experiments for 3 weeks by the promising young American neurosurgeon Harvey Cushing (1869�C1939) who was on his educational journey leading him through many important European medical centres.

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