“Microdamage has been cited as an important element of tra

“Microdamage has been cited as an important element of trabecular bone quality

and fracture risk, as materials with flaws have lower modulus and strength than equivalent undamaged materials. However, the magnitude of the effect of damage on failure properties depends on its tendency to propagate. Human femoral trabecular bone from the neck and greater trochanter was subjected to one of compressive, torsional, or combined compression and torsion. The in vivo, new, and propagating damage were then quantified in thick sections under epifluorescent microscopy. Multiaxial loading, which KPT-8602 was intended to represent an off-axis load such as a fall or accident, caused much more damage than either

simple compression or shear, and similarly caused the greatest stiffness loss. In all cases, initiation of new damage far exceeded the propagation of existing damage. This may reflect stress redistribution away from damaged trabeculae, resulting in new damage sites. However, the accumulation of new damage was positively correlated with quantity of pre-existing damage in all loading modes, indicating that FK228 clinical trial damaged bone is inherently more prone to further damage formation. Moreover, about 50% of in vivo microcracks propagated under each type of loading. Finally, damage formation was positively correlated to decreased compressive stiffness following both axial and shear loading. Taken together, these results demonstrate that damage in trabecular bone adversely affects its mechanical properties, and is indicative of bone that is more susceptible to further damage. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Brazilian green coffee beans of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora Fosbretabulin cell line species were roasted to light, medium, and dark roast degrees and analyzed in relation to furan content by using an in-house validated method based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry preceded

by headspace solid-phase microextraction. Furan was not detected in green coffees, whereas levels between 911 and 5852 mu g/kg were found in the roasted samples. Higher concentrations were found in Coffea canephora species and darker ground coffees. Some of the potential furan precursors were observed in significant amounts in green coffee, especially sucrose and linoleic acid, but their concentrations could not be correlated to furan formation. Additionally, coffee brews were prepared from roasted ground coffees by using two different procedures, and furan levels in the beverages varied from < 10 to 288 mu g/kg. The factor that most influenced the furan content in coffee brew was the brewing procedure.”
“Objectives Report and discuss acute neurological deterioration of Chiari I malformation (CMI), surgical treatment and timing, clinical outcome and literature review.

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