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“Background The layered transitional quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) semiconductor oxides MO3 (M = Mo, W), have recently attracted significant interest because they demonstrate quantum confinement effects at the few-layer limit [1, 2]. Among them, tungsten trioxide (WO3) is an n-type semiconductor in an indirect bandgap of 2.6 to 2.9 eV  with excellent electrochromic and gasochromic properties . It has electron Hall mobility of ~12 cm2V-1 s-1 at room temperature and responsive to the blue end of the visible spectrum (λ < 470 nm) .