Exclusion criteria included patients who were pronounced dead upon arrival and patients who were transferred from other acute care hospitals. All charts were retrospectively reviewed for demographics (age, gender, pre-existing co-morbidities, pre-existing anticoagulation medications, mechanism of injury, ISS, head abbreviated injury score [AIS], selleckchem GCS at scene and upon presentation to the ED, intubation at scene or in
ED, injured body regions, admission serum creatinine and INR, intensive care unit length of stay (ICU LOS), Entinostat ic50 hospital LOS, surgical interventions, complications (infectious and non-infectious), and in-hospital mortality. Any mortality within 30 days of injury was considered an in-hospital death regardless of patient location at the time of death. Time of death was extracted from the medical records which are updated regularly by the Israeli Governmental Ministry of Internal Affairs registry. Outcome variables were mortality and discharge placement. Discharge placement was defined as the patient destination after acute care in the trauma center, being home, rehabilitation center, assisted-living facility (ALF) (defined as lower level of dependence requiring professional
support), or transfer to another acute care hospital. Co-morbidities were defined as noted in Table 1. The absolute number of co-morbidities was calculated for patients with more than one listed illness. Table 1 Definition of co-morbidities identified in the study population Cardiac disease Known history of ischemic heart disease, previous cardiac interventions Malignancy Currently under oncological selleck kinase inhibitor follow up or
treatment for active oncological disease Diabetes mellitus Patient requiring insulin or oral hypoglycemic therapy Neurological disease History of cerebro-vascular accident, severe parkinsonism and/ or antiepileptic therapy Dementia Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) Any case with established diagnosis of dementia Hypertension History of hypertension requiring medication Chronic anticoagulation Patients currently on anticoagulation (LMWH or Warfarin), and /or antiplatelet therapy (excluding aspirin) Chronic renal failure History of preexisting renal insufficiency on admission Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Ongoing treatment for COPD Statistical analysis For quantitative variables, data is presented as mean and standard deviation (SD). The Chi-square test as well as the Fisher’s exact test was used to test the association between two qualitative variables. The Chi-square test for trends was used for qualitative ordinal variables. The Student’s T test was used to compare quantitative variables between the two groups. Univariate survival analysis was performed by Kaplan-Meier (K-M) methodology with significance of the difference between survival curves determined by the log-rank test. Variables which were significant in the K-M analysis, were entered into a stepwise, (forward, likelihood ratio) Cox regression model.