“Methods: In 24 patients on
CRT, iterative VV- and AV-delay optimization was done using the IGR method. This blinded, randomized, crossover study compared the responses to optimization during two periods: a 4-week optimized and a 4-week standard programming. Exercise capacity after optimization was assessed after each period by New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification, a 6-minute walking test, and quality of life (QoL) questionnaire.
Results: CO could be determined by IGR in all patients. The NYHA class decreased by 17.8% (2.8 +/- 0.3 vs 2.3 +/- 0.4, P < 0.001), the mean (+/- standard deviation) distance walked in 6 minutes was 9.3% greater after optimization (456 +/- 140 m vs 417 +/- 134 m, P < 0.001), and the QoL improved by 14.5% (41.8 +/- 10.4 vs 36.5 +/- find more 9.5, P < 0.001). The portion of responders to CRT increased from 66.5% to 87.5%.
Conclusion: CRT optimization by iterative CO measurements leads to an increase in CO and an improvement of exercise capacity. Our Proteasome inhibitor results suggest that this method might become an important additive tool to adjust CRT programming. (PACE 2010; 33:1188-1194).”
“During coevolution with their hosts, bacteria have developed functions that allow them to interfere with the mechanisms controlling the proliferation of eukaryotic cells. Cycle inhibiting
factor (Cif) is one of these cyclomodulins, the family of bacterial effectors that interfere with the host cell cycle. Acquired early during evolution by bacteria isolated from vertebrates and invertebrates, Cif is an effector protein of type III secretion machineries. Cif blocks the host cell cycle in G1 and G2 by inducing the accumulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(waf1/cip1) ALK cancer and p27(kip1), The x-ray crystal structure of Cif reveals it to be a divergent member of a superfamily of enzymes including cysteine proteases and acetyltransferases. This review summarizes and discusses what we know about Cif, from the bacterial gene to the host target.”
“A comparison is made between the electronic structures determined in ultrahigh vacuum of three surfaces using scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS)
and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). STS and KPFM illustrates Fermi level pinning of clean InAs(001)-(4 x 2) and InGaAs(001)-(4 x 2) surfaces and near flat band conditions for InAs(110) cleaved surfaces. However, for InAs(001)-(4 x 2) and InGaAs(001)-(4 x 2), STS and KPFM data show very different positions for the surface Fermi level on identical samples; it is hypothesized that the difference is due to the Fermi level measured by KPFM being shifted by a static charge dipole to which STS is much less sensitive. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi :10.1063/1.3462440]“
“Methods: In nine patients with persistent AF, we recorded 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) and 1-hour high-resolution Holter ECGs (H12+, Mortara Instrument, Inc.