Although the substitutions HSP inhibitor constructed (Q to H and K to R) do not represent dramatic changes in the amino acid properties, these changes have a clear effect on the role of Mg2+ (the Mn2+ dependent uridylylation is retained in all variants studied). Moreover, we have also confirmed that these variants retain functionality in the GlnE-activation assay, suggesting that these substitutions do not GSK1904529A manufacturer greatly perturb the overall structure. It is presently unclear from the structural point of view, which conformations of either GlnJ or GlnB (particularly of the T-loop) are interacting with GlnD and how these conformations are affected by
the binding of different divalent cations (Mg2+ and Mn2+). Additionally, a direct translation of the present results obtained with purified proteins to an in vivo physiological situation is buy BKM120 not linear as there is presently no information concerning
the concentrations of either Mg2+ or Mn2+ in R. rubrum, and if these concentrations vary in response to the nitrogen status (transitions that require changes in the uridylylation of the PII proteins). Nevertheless, it is certainly possible that Mn2+ has an important role, as we found this divalent cation to be always required in all reactions involving GlnJ. In addition to the Mn2+ requirement for in vitro uridylylation of GlnJ by GlnD, we have also demonstrated that the dissociation of the GlnJ-AmtB1 complex only occurs with Mn2+, ATP and 2-oxoglutarate, and that Mg2+ can not substitute for Mn2+[11, 13]. In addition, Mn2+ ions are essential for the activity of DRAG (the
activating enzyme for nitrogenase) [14, 17], a protein that has been suggested to interact with GlnJ [14, 15]. Considering that GlnJ is only expressed under nitrogen fixing conditions [6, 15], all factors that affect uridylylation of GlnJ can be of importance in the regulation of the DRAT/DRAG system and ultimately of nitrogenase. In summary, considering check details that GlnJ and GlnB are remarkably similar yet retaining functional specificity, it is possible that differences in divalent cation binding and consequently in the uridylylation status of the proteins can result in different target interaction and ultimately in different physiological roles. This study adds on to the understanding of the complexity of the PII signaling system in bacteria. Methods Bacterial strains and plasmids All plasmids and bacterial strains used in this study are listed in Table 1. E. coli strains were grown on selective Luria-Bertani medium containing antibiotics at the following final concentrations: 50 μg ml-1 ampicillin, 15 μg ml-1 tetracycline and 34 μg ml-1 chloramphenicol. R. rubrum S1 was grown in the medium previously described  under an atmosphere of 95% N2/ 5% CO2 at 30°C.