2006). It is estimated that the rain forest area is disappearing with an estimated 1 million square kilometers lost every 5–10 years, and this will significantly impact our knowledge of their biodiversity (Pimm and Raven 2000; Wright and Mueller-Landau 2006; Gibbs et al. Rabusertib chemical structure 2010). For these reasons, biodiversity studies from the still existing rain forests are urgently required. Studies of mushroom diversity in the Amazon region have been done at a limited scale. Rolf CFTR activator Singer made several contributions to our knowledge of fungal biodiversity in the Neotropics and his works include studies on the influence of periodic flooding on fungal diversity in some igapó forests in Brazilian
Amazonia (Singer 1988) and on fungal biodiversity of ectotrophic forests in central Amazonia (Singer et al. 1983). Most of his further
contributions were taxonomic revisions of genera from different Neotropical regions, including the Amazon areas (i.e., Singer 1965, 1976). More recent works include the preparation of check lists on macrofungal diversity of Amazonian forests. For instance, 39 species of agarics were reported from explorations in the Walter Alberto Egler biological reserve near Manaus (De Souza and Aguiar 2004). Even fewer studies have explored fungal diversity in Colombian Amazonia (Franco-Molano et al. 2005; Vasco-Palacios et al. 2005). Our studies aim to contribute to the knowledge of macrofungal biodiversity of some remarkable biota from different tropical lowland forests in Colombia. SRT2104 in vivo Therefore we compared the mushroom diversity in 1. forests occurring in two distantly located (>300 km) regions, namely Araracuara and Amacayacu; 2. várzea (flood forests) and terra firme (non-flood) forests in Amacayacu; 3. putative regeneration stadia of forests in the Araracuara region; and 4. a putative ectomycorrhizal dipterocarp forest (Araracuara-Peña Roja). Methods Study area The Amazonian region, a mosaic of forests embracing 7,989,004 km2 that holds approximately 60,000 plant species, is considered as the largest forested area and one of
the most biodiverse places on earth (Ter Steege et al. 2003; Hoorn et al. 2010). In the northwestern part of the Amazon area, the forests nearly cover 42 % of the area of Colombia. Two locations near the Caquetá and Amazonas rivers were selected because of the availability of data on plant diversity, soils and climate, as well as accessibility. According to the life zone definition of Holdridge (Holdridge et al. 1971; Holdridge 1982) both areas belong to a Tropical Humid Forest. The climate is classified as equatorial superhumid without a dry season (Type Afi of Köppen 1936, cited by Duivenvoorden and Lips 1993). The average annual temperature is approximately 25 °C, the monthly precipitation over 100 mm, and the annual average rainfall ranges approximately between 3,100 and 3,300 mm (Tobón 1999).